Dutch


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Dutch

1. the language of the Netherlands, belonging to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family and quite closely related to German and English
2. the Dutch the natives, citizens, or inhabitants of the Netherlands

Dutch

 

a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense), the principal inhabitants of the Netherlands. They number approximately 12.6 million (1970, estimate). In addition, approximately 1 million Dutch live in the USA, Canada, the West Indies, Indonesia, and other countries. They speak Dutch. The majority of believers are Protestants (Calvinists and others); there are Catholics, Baptists, and others as well.

The nucleus of the Dutch nationality, which was formed in the 14th and 15th centuries, was composed of Germanic tribes of Frisians, Batavi, Saxons, and Franks, mixed with Celts, all of whom lived in the historical area of Holland in the early Middle Ages. The bourgeois revolution of the 16th century in the Netherlands and the national liberation movement against Spain, promoted the national consolidation of the Dutch people. Regional ethnographic differences among the Dutch are now insignificant. The majority of the Dutch are engaged in industry. The rural population forms a relatively small part of the total population and is engaged mainly in livestock raising, truck farming and floriculture and, in the coastal regions, in fishing. The Flemings, living in the southern provinces of the country, are very closely related to the Dutch in language, origin, and culture.

REFERENCES

Narody zarubezhnoiEvropy, vol. 2.Moscow, 1965.(Bibliography.)
Byvanch, A.W. Nederland in den romeinschein tijd, parts 1–2.Leiden, 1943.
Barnouw, A.J. Dutch: A Portrait Study of the People of Holland. Oxford, 1940.

I. N. GROZDOVA


Dutch

 

the official language of the Netherlands and one of the two official languages of Belgium; also spoken in the USA and the West Indies. Dutch is spoken by approximately 14 million people (1970, estimate).

Dutch belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. It has the following dialects: northwestern (North Dutch), south central (Brabantine and East Flemish), southwestern (West Flemish and Zeeland), northeastern (Saxon), and southeastern (Limburg).

Phonetic features of Dutch include the presence of the voiceless plosive consonants p, t, and k and an abundance of diphthongs. Stress is dynamic, falling usually on the root syllable. Dutch is an analytic language. Its declensional system has few inflections: nouns are inflected in the common and possessive cases, and personal pronouns are inflected in the subject and object cases. A common gender, opposed to the neuter gender, has evolved from the masculine and feminine genders. Adjectives are not declined. Verbs have two simple and six compound tenses, two voices (active and passive), and three moods (indicative, imperative, and subjunctive). A single supradialectal literary language was formed in the 17th century. However, there are regional differences in the written and spoken forms of the literary language. Dutch uses the Latin alphabet.

F. Engels’ work The Frankish Dialect (1st ed., 1935) pointed out the most important problems in the diachronic study of the Dutch language, and also treated questions of Dutch phonetics, morphology, and lexicology.

REFERENCES

Engels, F. ”Frankskii period.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 19.
Mironov, S. A. Niderlandskii (gollandskii) iazyk. Moscow, 1965.
Mironov, S. A. Morfologiia imeni ν niderlandskom iazyke. Moscow, 1967. (Contains a bibliography.)
Mironov, S. A. Stanovlenie literaturnoi normy sovremennogo niderlandskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1973.
Franck, J. Etymologisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal, 2nd ed. The Hague, 1930. (Supplemented by C. B. van Haeringen, 1936.)
Fonologie van het Nederlands en het Fries. The Hague, 1959.
Haeringen, C. B. van. Netherlandic Language Research, 2nd ed. Leiden, 1960.
Schönfeld, M. , and Van Loey, A. Historische grammatica van het Nederlands, 7th ed. Zutphen, 1965.
Dale, Van. Groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal, 9th ed. The Hague, 1970.

S. A. MIRONOV

References in classic literature ?
This happy step was, indeed, our deliverance: for though we did not immediately see any European ships in the bay of Tonquin, yet the next morning there came into the bay two Dutch ships; and a third without any colours spread out, but which we believed to be a Dutchman, passed by at about two leagues' distance, steering for the coast of China; and in the afternoon went by two English ships steering the same course; and thus we thought we saw ourselves beset with enemies both one way and the other.
I have observed above that our ship sprung a leak at sea, and that we could not find it out; and it happened that, as I have said, it was stopped unexpectedly, on the eve of our being pursued by the Dutch and English ships in the bay of Siam; yet, as we did not find the ship so perfectly tight and sound as we desired, we resolved while we were at this place to lay her on shore, and clean her bottom, and, if possible, to find out where the leaks were.
It was one of those spacious farmhouses, with high- ridged but lowly sloping roofs, built in the style handed down from the first Dutch settlers; the low projecting eaves forming a piazza along the front, capable of being closed up in bad weather.
Among these, the most formidable was a burly, roaring, roystering blade, of the name of Abraham, or, according to the Dutch abbreviation, Brom Van Brunt, the hero of the country round which rang with his feats of strength and hardihood.
Not those of the bevy of buxom lasses, with their luxurious display of red and white; but the ample charms of a genuine Dutch country tea-table, in the sumptuous time of autumn.
This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear of ghosts except in our long-established Dutch communities.
For my part, I incline to the latter opinion, and make no doubt that great sums lie buried, both there and in other parts of this island and its neighborhood, ever since the times of the buccaneers and the Dutch colonists; and I would earnestly recommend the search after them to such of my fellow citizens as are not engaged in any other speculations.
In fact Wolfert Webber was one of those worthy Dutch burghers of the Manhattoes whose fortunes have been made, in a manner, in spite of themselves; who have tenaciously held on to their hereditary acres, raising turnips and cabbages about the skirts of the city, hardly able to make both ends meet, until the corporation has cruelly driven streets through their abodes, and they have suddenly awakened out of their lethargy, and, to their astonishment, found themselves rich men.
The ancient mansion of his forefathers was still kept up, but, instead of being a little yellow-fronted Dutch house in a garden, it now stood boldly in the midst of a street, the grand home of the neighborhood; for Wolfert enlarged it with a wing on each side, and a cupola or tea room on top, where he might climb up and smoke his pipe in hot weather, and in the course of time the whole mansion was overrun by the chubby-faced progeny of Amy Webber and Dirk Waldron.
The present volume contributes to the sparse Anglophone historiography of the Dutch Atlantic, emphasizing the ties that the Netherlands and their American colonies forged beyond the Dutch realm.
While acknowledging the Germanic roots of the language, Louden explains the reasons for calling it Pennsylvania Dutch, as well as the rationale for considering Pennsylvania Dutch an American language, not a German dialect.
This color-illustrated coffee table book for aviation aficionados details the history of Dutch aviation during the first half of the 20th century, covering both Dutch commercial and military airplanes and the development of the Dutch airline industry.