Dvaravati


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Dvaravati

 

an ancient Mon state in Southeast Asia that lasted until the tenth century. It probably arose in the second century A.D. The earliest Dvaravati inscriptions (in Mon and in Sanscrit) date from the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries. Originally the Dvaravati Kingdom occupied the region near the mouth of the Mekong River and was a vassal of the Funan empire. Dvaravati is first mentioned as an independent state in Chinese chronicles of the seventh century. About this time, the territory of Dvaravati embraced the southern part of the territory of present-day Thailand and Burma. Dvaravati maintained diplomatic and cultural relations with India and China. In the eighth and ninth centuries Lopburi (Luvo) became the capital of Dvaravati and the entire state took on its name; in the tenth century Luvo-Dvaravati was conquered by the Khmers. The art and architecture of Dvaravati were initially under the strong influence of Indian Buddhist art, but later they evolved many clearly original features.

REFERENCE

Brigg. L. P. “Dvaravati, the Most Ancient Kingdom of Siam.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1945, vol. 65, no. 2.

E. O. BERZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Nestled in Thailand's beautiful countryside, just two hours outside of Bangkok, Tawaravadee Resort, BW Signature Collection by Best Western has been inspired by the region's ancient Dvaravati culture.
3000 BC-539 BC) Taiwan China Tanzania Swahili city-states (eighth century or ninth century-sixteenth century) Sukuma tribes (fourteenth-nineteenth century) Thailand Dvaravati Kingdoms (sixth century-thirteenth century) Trinidad and Tobago Colony (1498-early nineteenth century) Turkey Seljuk Rum Sultanate (1077-1308); Ottoman Empire (c.
Subhadradis Diskul, The sculpture of Thailand (Sydney: Visual Arts Board, 1977); Louis Frederic, The temples and sculptures of Southeast Asia (London: Thames & Hudson, 1965); Robert Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law and the Indianization of South East Asia (Leiden: Brill, 1996); Gauri Devi, Hindu deities in Thai art (Varanasi: Aditya Prakashan, 1998).
In this connection it is interesting to note that the Avasyakacurni (I 460.9-461.13) tells a story about two doctors at the city of Dvaravati, the good doctor Vaitarani, who treats Jaina monks kindly and prescribes suitable remedies, and the bad doctor Dhanvantari, who treats them harshly and prescribes unsuitable remedies.
He uses quantitative and demographic evidence to estimate the size and extent of Buddhist communities in the Khorat Plateau during the Dvaravati period.
In the middle years of the tenth century, the encounter between the Dvaravati towns and the kingdom of Cambodia was a two-way street, with Khmer stylistic elements entering Dvaravati workshops and Buddhist subjects becoming increasingly important in Cambodia.
It may also be suggested that this concept was developed further in succeeding periods where walled settlements of much larger size developed, often around Iron Age moated sites, during the Dvaravati period.
Archaeologists and art historians use newly-available data to reappraise the emergence of some of the region's first named polities: DvaravatI, Funan, Zhenia, Pyu and Mon.
The welcome ingress of new cross-disciplinary study and reflection on the Mon polity of "Dvaravati", the Peninsula and the Mon and Khmer cultures of the Khorat Plateau further northeast is something of a patchwork because of the conference proceedings formula, though the editors did go outside the conference to buttress the content.
According to Edward Schafer fire orbs (huozhu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) were not only obtained from Rakshasa (Luocha), but also from Bali, DvaravatI, Kashmir, and Japan (Schafer 1963:237-239).
The visitor is left with the impression that Srivijaya was a proto-Siamese state--one of several political and cultural precursors to modern Thailand, including Dvaravati, Sukhothai, and Ayutthaya.