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Difficult or painful menstruation.



disturbances of menstruation, characterized by pains in the lower abdomen, the small of the back, and the sacrum (algomenorrhea), combined with general symptoms (migraine, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, and sleep disturbance).

Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in women with no previous gynecological disease, most often in young girls and young women who have not given birth. This dysmenorrhea often ceases with a regular sex life and especially after parturition. Secondary dysmenorrhea appears as a result of inflammatory processes, the development of tumors in the woman’s sex organs, version of the uterus, and so on. Dysmenorrhea may develop as a result of psychological shock associated with the onset of the first menstruation in uninformed young girls, when there is a long-unfulfilled desire to become pregnant, and in cases of unsatisfactory sex life. Sometimes dysmenorrhea arises owing to the functional characteristics of a woman’s nervous system (vagotonic form). A special form of dysmenorrhea is membranous dysmenorrhea, which is associated with hormonal disharmony (the preponderance of estrogen over the hormone of the corpus luteum).

Treatment depends on the causes of the dysmenorrhea and its form. General restorative treatment, pain relievers, sedatives, hormone therapy, and physical therapy are prescribed.

References in periodicals archive ?
Exactly the same prostaglandin imbalance is seen in endometriosis, and there's evidence that primary dysmenorrhea may occur on a continuum with endometriosis.
As a result, ginger may have a role in the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
Discussion: There is a rich history of traditional naturopathic texts that describe the use of herbal medicine in the management of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia.
They concluded that the effect of regular exercise on dysmenorrhea might be due to the effect of hormonal changes on uterine epithelial tissue or an increase in endorphin levels.
2] The finding that dysmenorrhea posed a hindrance to various activities is also similar to a previous study.
Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of primary dysmenorrhea.
Conclusions: A high prevalence of dysmenorrhea was prevalent among medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Health promotion, screening programs, and stress management courses are recommended.
Other studies have shown a reduction in primary dysmenorrhea using fish oils as has vitamin B1.
A review of the literature indicates that primary dysmenorrhea is caused by increased production of endometrial prostaglandins.
Traditional medicines like brewed herbs have been used to treat dysmenorrhea across the world (16).
Primary dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school and work absenteeism in adolescent girls and women, and it has a negative impact on social, academic and sports activities in female adolescents (11).
Conclusions: This result supports that using TENS could be effective in pain reduction among adolescents who suffered from primar y dysmenorrhea.