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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
A Total of 1200 obstetric patients were enrolled during the study period who had dyspnea ranging from NYHA>II.
Several studies have shown that patients find dyspnea and other COPD symptoms most cumbersome in the early morning and at night-time.
Selection of participants: All consecutive patients over the age of 18 with nontraumatic acute dyspnea [dyspneic numeric rating scale (dNRS) [greater than or equal to] 4] were assessed for the eligibility.
The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of IS use with a placebo-control activity on perceived dyspnea in patients hospitalized with pneumonia.
Second group will get pulmonary rehabilitation in addition to their Pharmacological treatment (Standard of care treatment for COPD) and their dyspnea scoring and 6-minute walk distance are recorded at the start of study and after 8 weeks (end of study).
Recent research had shown that pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with COPD without regard to their level of baseline dyspnea, but the influence of the level of baseline exercise capacity on the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation had not been systematically studied, wrote Mr.
A 53-year-old man was admitted to our cardiology department due to a history of progressive dyspnea (NYHA class III).
The slope was increased by one point according to the Borg dyspnea scale [less than or equal to] 3 (moderate dyspnea) which was evaluated every five minutes during the exercise.
The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to introduce a fast and practical assessment system based on the degree of dyspnea and (2) to define the proper management according to the clinical severity.
Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea.
It has been shown that 3% of women in the reproductive age group suffer from a variety of acquired or congenital heart diseases such as myxomas, which exhibit themselves as dyspnea. Dyspnea is a common phenomenon during pregnancy and is a result of such physiological changes in pregnancy as edema, weight gain, dilutional anemia, and sex hormones-induced hyperventilation.
We hypothesized that patients may reflect dyspnea differently depending on the context and/or the stress encountered to invoke dyspnea and that exercise training will reduce the sensation of dyspnea differently depending on the instrument used for assessment.