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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
He had history of progressive dyspnea on exertion over one year.
In our series, the patients had history of dyspnea on exertion.
A 24-year-old African-American female presented with shortness of breath, chest tightness and dyspnea on exertion for a week.
A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dyspnea on exertion and palpitation.
In the final step, we entered admission symptoms of dyspnea at rest, dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, fatigue, angina, and lower-extremity edema.
When we restricted our analysis to patients with incident heart failure who were not receiving ACE inhibitors at the time of admission, age was not associated with LVF evalua tion (Table 4); however, care by cardiologist and symptoms of dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea were associated with higher odds of LVF evaluation.