Escherichia coli

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (ĕshˌərĭkˈēə kōˈlī), common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the urinary tract. It is the most common member of the genus Escherichia, named for Theodor Escherich, a German physician. E. coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium propelled by long, rapidly rotating flagella. It is part of the normal flora of the mouth and gut and helps protect the intestinal tract from bacterial infection, aids in digestion, and produces small amounts of vitamins B12 and K. The bacterium, which is also found in soil and water, is widely used in laboratory research and is said to be the most thoroughly studied life form. In genetic engineering it is the microorganism preferred for use as a host for the gene-splicing techniques used to clone genes.

E. Coli Food Poisoning

In 1982 a particularly toxic strain of E. coli, E. coli 0157:H7, was identified; it produces a toxin (Shiga toxin) that damages cells that line the intestines. The same strain was responsible for a 1993 outbreak of food poisoning in Washington state, which sickened 500 people and killed three, and a series of outbreaks in 1996 in Japan, which sickened some 10,000 and killed 12. A rarer and more virulent Shiga-toxin-producing strain, E. coli O104:H4, was the cause of the 2011 outbreak centered on N Germany that sickened more than 4,000 people from more than a dozen countries and killed 50.

Food-poisoning outbreaks due to Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are typically the result of transmission via raw or undercooked ground meat (thought to become contaminated during slaughter or processing) or contaminated salad ingredients. The strains can potentially contaminate any food. STEC infections can also occur through other means, such as contact with infected persons or cattle, or consumption of or contact with contaminated water.

Symptoms, which begin 1 to 8 days after infection and last for about a week, include bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and in some cases, fever. The most serious complication is a hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) that can lead to kidney failure and death, especially in children. The 2011 infection, for example, led to HUS in some 900 people. There is no treatment other than supportive care. Practical preventive measures include thorough cooking of meat and careful hygiene around infected individuals.

A rapid rise in the number of cases of illness caused by STEC strains has prompted calls for a reevaluation of food inspection techniques in the United States. Irradiation of meat and some greens is now approved by the FDA as a means to destroy such bacteria.

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Escherichia coli

[‚esh·ə′rik·ē·ə ′kō‚lī]
(microbiology)
The type species of the genus, occurring as part of the normal intestinal flora in vertebrates. Also known as colon bacillus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The gram-negative rod was further processed and identified as E. coli by performing various biochemical tests.
Due to the low infective dose of E. coli O157:H7, the potential severity of the infection and the possibility of laboratory-acquired infections (11), an inoculation of fewer than 10 to 100 colony forming units (CFU) of E.
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pathogenic, Virulence associated genes, O-antigen serotype, Tibetan piglets.
Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli was recorded in all the environments, suggesting a global expansion of these enzymes.
The levels of E. coli in streams are particularly driven by precipitation events.
Prior to 2010, the standard maximum level of non-toxigenic E. coli was 100 MPN per gram.
For example, the CoQ side chain in human cells is comprised of ten isoprene units and forms Co[Q.sub.10], while Escherichia coli (E. coli) contains Co[Q.sub.8] which possesses eight isoprene units in its side chain (12-16).
Key words: Sorbitol, Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar, E. coli O157, PCR, Buffalo, Sorbitol Non Fermenters
Desde entonces se han reportado numerosos brotes de colitis hemorragica y sus complicaciones en Estados Unidos de Norteamerica, Canada, Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Suecia, Alemania, Espana y Japon; paises donde E. coli enterohemorragica O157:H7 ha sido la principal causa (Dorn 1995, Siegler 1995, Mead & Griffin 1998, Michimo et al.