Epstein-Barr virus

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Epstein-Barr virus

(EBV), herpesvirus that is the major cause of infectious mononucleosismononucleosis, infectious
, acute infectious disease of older children and young adults, occurring sporadically or in epidemic form, also known as mono, glandular fever, and kissing disease. The causative organism is a herpesvirus known as Epstein-Barr virus.
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 and is associated with a number of cancers, particularly lymphomaslymphoma, non-Hodgkin's,
any cancer of the lymphoid tissue (see lymphatic system) in which the Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease (the other category of lymphoma) are not present.
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 in immunosuppressed persons, including persons with AIDS. Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus, so common that it has been difficult to determine whether it is the cause of certain diseases or whether it is simply there as an artifact. In Third World nations, most children are infected with EBV; in most industrialized nations, about 50% of the people are infected. Research has found that all of the lymphomas associated with AIDS and most lymphomas in other immunocompromised persons are connected with latent EBV infection. EBV has been found in biopsy tissue of patients with Hodgkin's diseaseHodgkin's disease,
a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. First identified in 1832 in England by Thomas Hodgkin, it is a type of malignant lymphoma. Incidence peaks in young adults and the elderly.
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, breast cancer, and some smooth muscle tumors. EBV also was formerly suspected as the cause of chronic fatigue syndromechronic fatigue syndrome
(CFS), collection of persistent, debilitating symptoms, the most notable of which is severe, lasting fatigue. In other countries it is known variously as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome, and postviral
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 (originally named chronic EBV syndrome).

Epstein-Barr virus

An antigenically distinct member of the herpesvirus group of viruses, whose genome is DNA. EB virus is the cause of one benign disease (infectious mononucleosis), and is associated with certain types of cancer; however, the great majority of EB virus infections are clinically inapparent. The virus was detected initially by electron microscopy in a small proportion of cells in continuous lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from Burkitt's lymphoma (but particles have not been seen in cells of the tumor itself). The virus also has been detected in cell lines derived from nasopharyngeal carcinomas, a type of cancer found with high frequency in persons from southern China. The virus is found in peripheral blood leukocytes from normal individuals and from patients with infectious mononucleosis. See Infectious mononucleosis, Lymphoma

If EB virus is indeed confirmed as having a role in the development of human malignancies, then one major question to be resolved is how a virus so ubiquitous can be involved in so wide a variety of responses. However, it should be recalled that many virus infections (for example, polio virus, hepatitis viruses, certain of the arboviral encephalitides) have a wide spectrum of outcomes, ranging from inapparent infection to severe syndromes. See Animal virus

Epstein-Barr virus

[¦ep·stīn ¦bär ‚vī·rəs]
(virology)
Herpeslike virus particles first identified in cultures of cells from Burkett's malignant lymphoma.
References in periodicals archive ?
showed that all of the immuno-suppression-related oral NHLs were EBV-infected, whereas the EBV infection rate in the NHLs of the presumably immuno- competent patients was only 9%.
There is no systematic review to compare the EBV DNA and VCA-IgA in diagnosis of NPC.
Increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies.
When the researchers looked only at men who had not started antiretroviral therapy, the three strongest predictors of being a transmitter were (1) an HIV level at or above 40,000 copies in semen versus no detectable HIV in semen, (2) any detectable CMV in semen, and (3) any detectable EBV in semen (Figure 1, front row).
High prevalence rates of VZV and EBV were found in all age groups in both hemodialysis patients and control group (98.
Splenic EBV-associated IPTs show strong expression of EBER in the spindle cell component, but not in the inflammatory cells in the background or in the surrounding tissue, providing indirect evidence that EBV infection has an important role in its pathogenesis.
Table 2: Distribution of EBV positivity in relation to gender, age and subtypes of HL.
If they are cofactors of EBV, studies are further needed to examine whether or not these factors promote EBV infection of healthy nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, and whether the infected cells lyse.
The Zephyr EBV should be considered a first-line treatment for properly selected patients with severe emphysema based on its robust clinical evidence, minimally invasive approach and reversibility.
Importantly, STELVIO included patients with both heterogeneous and homogeneous emphysema, and both populations treated with the Zephyr EBV had statistically greater and clinically meaningful outcomes than medically managed patients.
In order to examine the reduced T-cell response observed in SLE patients further and to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients, the cytokine profile upon EBV antigen stimulation was determined in this study.