(2) Different from general Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA
), the key is a point on elliptic curves rather than a scalar in scalar multiplication for SM9 algorithm.
We also include ECDSA
in the comparison as a criterion , which is the signature algorithm adopted in .
RSA  and ECDSA
 are two well-known public key cryptography techniques that use two keys; private and public.
We consider that each AP has a signing/verification key pair (pk, sk) of a common digital signature scheme ECDSA
(9) Elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA
) is the arithmetic of blockchains, and asymmetric key cryptography is the means by which data transactions are encrypted by a sender and decrypted by a receiver using the paired public/private key method.
Over the past 30 years, ECC has become a key part of many current cryptosystems, cryptographic schemes and algorithms, e.g., Elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH), Elliptic curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES), Elliptic curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA
), Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA), Elliptic curve Menezes-Qu-Vanstone (ECMQV), and Elliptic curve Qu-Vanstone (ECQV).
The elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA
) is used to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks  and to achieve mutual authentication between the tag and the reader.
Wang et al., "Byzantine fault-tolerant routing for large-scale wireless sensor networks based on fast ECDSA
," Tsinghua Science and Technology, vol.
NIST has recommended fifteen specific elliptic curves for government use in cryptographic applications, and NIST has standardized the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA
), as well as the Diffie-Hellman and MQV key agreement schemes.