Court of Justice of the European Union

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Court of Justice of the European Union

Court of Justice of the European Union, judicial institution of the European Union (EU). Located in Luxembourg, it was founded in 1958 as the joint court for the three treaty organizations that were consolidated into the European Community (the predecessor of the EU) in 1967.

The institution now consists of two bodies. The Court of Justice is the direct descendant of the original joint court. It is now composed of 11 advocates general and one judge from each of the EU nations. All members of the court are appointed for renewable six-year terms by agreement among the EU nations. The court interprets EU treaties and legislation. Although it may attempt to reconcile differences between national and EU laws, ultimately its decisions overrule those of national courts; they have tended to expand the EU's domain. Increased litigation over the years led to the establishment of a lower court, the General Court (1988, formerly the Court of First Instance); a specialized civil service tribunal established in 2004 had its jurisdiction assumed by the General Court in 2016. Appeals to the Court of Justice are tightly restricted.

International law cases involving nations outside the EU are heard by the World Court in The Hague; the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, is recognized by the members of the Council of Europe and hears cases relating to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Personal Freedoms.

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References in periodicals archive ?
(C 115) 47 (on the procedure for the imposition of penalty payments for non-compliance with ECJ rulings); Brian Jack, Article 260(2) TFEU: An Effective Judicial Procedure for the Enforcement of Judgements?, 19 EUR.
The ECJ considered two questions: (1) whether an EU member state Data Protection Authority (DPA) that receives a compliant about a data transfer is bound by the European Commission ruling that the Safe Harbor provides an adequate level of protection; and (2) whether the DPA must conduct its own investigation into practices since the Commission ruling.
The ECJ's decision has provided some comfort to large employers who, after the EAT's decision, faced being obliged to carry out lengthy and expensive consultation procedures on a more frequent basis.
ECJ President Skouris commended Bulgaria on its active use of the Court, especially in respect to interpretation of legislation and equal implementation of rules.
In a ruling on 18 October, the ECJ banned the patentability of human embryonic stem cells.
The Premier League said in a statement: "The ECJ judgment responds to 18 specific questions referred by the UK High Court.
The scope of action of governments, national trade unions and employers' organizations is restricted to differing degrees by the ECJ decisions.
EU law "does not preclude a host provider from being ordered to remove such information worldwide," Szpunar wrote, according to a statement released by the ECJ.
In addition to this case there is a continually evolving body of EU Member State case law resting in recent decisions in the ECJ which provides further clarity, and a possible extension of the scope of application of EC 261 to non EU Member States.
The post ECJ to hear case on whether UK alone can reverse Brexit appeared first on Cyprus Mail .
The former Cabinet ministers Iain Duncan Smith, Owen Paterson, Nigel Lawson and John Redwood have said it would be unacceptable for the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to have any jurisdiction over the UK during the planned two-year transition after Brexit.