Escherichia coli

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Escherichia coli

(ĕsh'ərĭk`ēə kō`lī), common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the urinary tract. It is the most common member of the genus Escherichia, named for Theodor Escherich, a German physician. E. coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium propelled by long, rapidly rotating flagella. It is part of the normal flora of the mouth and gut and helps protect the intestinal tract from bacterial infection, aids in digestion, and produces small amounts of vitamins B12 and K. The bacterium, which is also found in soil and water, is widely used in laboratory research and is said to be the most thoroughly studied life form. In genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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 it is the microorganism preferred for use as a host for the gene-splicing techniques used to clone genes.

E. Coli Food Poisoning

In 1982 a particularly toxic strain of E. coli, E. coli 0157:H7, was identified; it produces a toxin (Shiga toxin) that damages cells that line the intestines. The same strain was responsible for a 1993 outbreak of food poisoning in Washington state, which sickened 500 people and killed three, and a series of outbreaks in 1996 in Japan, which sickened some 10,000 and killed 12. A rarer and more virulent Shiga-toxin-producing strain, E. coli O104:H4, was the cause of the 2011 outbreak centered on N Germany that sickened more than 4,000 people from more than a dozen countries and killed 50.

Food-poisoning outbreaks due to Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are typically the result of transmission via raw or undercooked ground meat (thought to become contaminated during slaughter or processing) or contaminated salad ingredients. The strains can potentially contaminate any food. STEC infections can also occur through other means, such as contact with infected persons or cattle, or consumption of or contact with contaminated water.

Symptoms, which begin 1 to 8 days after infection and last for about a week, include bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and in some cases, fever. The most serious complication is a hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) that can lead to kidney failure and death, especially in children. The 2011 infection, for example, led to HUS in some 900 people. There is no treatment other than supportive care. Practical preventive measures include thorough cooking of meat and careful hygiene around infected individuals.

A rapid rise in the number of cases of illness caused by STEC strains has prompted calls for a reevaluation of food inspection techniques in the United States. Irradiation of meat and some greens is now approved by the FDA as a means to destroy such bacteria.

Escherichia coli

[‚esh·ə′rik·ē·ə ′kō‚lī]
The type species of the genus, occurring as part of the normal intestinal flora in vertebrates. Also known as colon bacillus.
References in periodicals archive ?
En el caso de los EE, estos son instrumentos estrati?1/2gicos que permiten el ani?1/2lisis de las dini?1/2micas y relaciones existentes en el territorio, asi?1/2 como su articulacii?1/2n con otras regiones, a partir de sus caracteri?1/2sticas ecoli?1/2gicas, necesidades y de su desarrollo financiero (Minam, 2016).
CDC Iris Ecoli Olive Y14c Wine Permutation 84.67% 67.56% 82.34% 93.96% 94.94% iRadviz 94.00% 78.57% 80.24% 100% 96.63% Table 2: The Best CDM function over permutation and inversion axes.
So two groups of experiments are designed to compare the accuracies of the proposed algorithm against the EODSP, in the situations of different percent of labeled outliers and normal samples, respectively, on the datasets Iris, Abalone, Wine, Ecoli, and WDBC.
The testing results showed that model could predict Ecoli leaching with good accuracy both using CDE equations.
A lighting system that can kill hospital Superbugs - including MRSA, Ecoli TB bacteria and Cdjff - has been named Research Project of the Year at the Times Higher Education Awards.
"Toilet seats are a haven for germs and disease, such as pubic lice, scabies, Ecoli, staph and more.
NDM-1 in Ecoli, Kpneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae) Adapted from Rice LB, Bonomo RA.
Our provost--my boss--recently asked me if journalists know how to evaluate, say, the chance of a Category 5 storm hitting New Orleans or the risk to the population when Ecoli is discovered in a very small part of the food chain.
Our LP418M reduces ecoli to 0.0 in tests by independent testing labs.
And there is also the potential for disease being caused by extreme weather conditions, potentially associated with climate change, such as the 2004 flooding in Boscastle, Cornwall, which caused an outbreak of Ecoli 0157.
The possibility and level of expression of these constructs were investigated in BL21 (DE3) strain of Escherichia coli (Ecoli) as expression host.
It will see Dortrend International coat one of its Event ranges of toilets with its anti-bacterial coating TouchClean, which fights MRSA, SARS c difficile, ecoli and Swine Flu, in a bid to test its product in a new sector.

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