Nearsurface wind patterns and the size of the tornado, juxtaposition of the condensation funnel with the damage swath and radar signatures, and consistency between near-surface wind speed estimated from visual observations and that estimated using EF scale were revealed based on ground and aerial surveys, radar and surface observations, photographs, and tornado videos.
The damage to structures along the tornado track was rated using the EF scale (WSEC 2006) by the National Weather Service EFkit software (LaDue and Mahoney 2006).
The speed of the near-surface wind here estimated based on the visual observation was comparable to that estimated in EF scale.
The photogrammetrically derived wind speed estimate provides evidence to support that derived from the EF scale.
In this sense, this study provides another case demonstrating the validation in applying the EF scale for tornado damage surveys to a place outside the United States.
The tornado that hit the town and nearby Mayflower was probably the nation's strongest so far this year on the 0-to-5 EF scale
, with the potential to be at least an EF3, which means winds greater than 136 mph, National Weather Service meteorologist Jeff Hood said.
The EF Scale
lumps the storms into one of six categories based on damage to trees, light poles, buildings and other structures.
82); and an EF scale, with the data for patients M=4.
As can be seen in the upper section of Table 3, when self-coping of the patient is entered as a control variable, the association of patients' perceived other-coping for the EF scale with their PSA scores remain negative and significant.
55 for patients and spouses, respectively, while the equivalent correlations for the EF scales were .
It was used by the NWS from 1971 to 2007, when it was modified and renamed the EF scale
The distributions of the EF scale
, pathlength, and path width, all obtained from the SPC database, are plotted in Fig.