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(ē`səp, ē`sŏp), legendary Greek fabulist. According to Herodotus, he was a slave who lived in Samos in the 6th cent. B.C. and eventually was freed by his master. Other accounts associate him with many wild adventures and connect him with such rulers as Solon and Croesus. The fables called Aesop's fables were preserved principally through BabriusBabrius
, fl. 2d cent.?, Greek fabulist, versifier of the fables of Aesop. Many of the medieval prose collections of Aesop were based on Babrius. He may have been a Hellenized Roman.
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, PhaedrusPhaedrus
, fl. 1st cent. A.D., Latin writer, a Thracian slave, possibly a freedman of Augustus. He wrote fables in verse based largely on those of Aesop. The prose collections of fables that were popular throughout Western Europe in the Middle Ages were probably derived from Phaedrus.
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, Planudes MaximusPlanudes Maximus
or Maximus Planudes,
c.1260–c.1330, Byzantine scholar, an exceptionally learned monk. His edition of the Greek Anthology was long the standard. His prose collection of Aesop's Fables is outstanding.
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, and La FontaineLa Fontaine, Jean de
, 1621–95, French poet, whose celebrated fables place him among the masters of world literature. He was born at Château-Thierry to a bourgeois family. A restless dilettante as a youth, he settled at last in Paris.
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's verse translations. The most famous of these fables include "The Fox and the Grapes" and "The Tortoise and the Hare." See fablefable,
brief allegorical narrative, in verse or prose, illustrating a moral thesis or satirizing human beings. The characters of a fable are usually animals who talk and act like people while retaining their animal traits.
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Greek author of fables in the sixth century B.C. According to legend, Aesop was a Phrygian freedman who was employed at the court of the Lydian king Croesus and died a violent death in Delphi. Biographical information on Aesop is drawn from legend.

Aesop has been credited with supplying the themes of most of the fables known in antiquity. Short written versions of these fables were collected in the fourth and third centuries B.C.; more than 300 fables with short “morals” appear in many later manuscripts ranging in time from the tenth to the 15th century. Ideologically, Aesop’s fables are skeptical and pessimistic; their protagonists—mainly animals—are avowedly conventional figures, the narrative is concise and straightforward, and the language is simple and close to the colloquial. Aesop’s fables are the basic source of themes for the European literary fable from Phaedrus and Babrius to La Fontaine and I. A. Krylov.


Aesopica, vol. 1. Edited by B. E. Perry. Urbana, 1952.
In Russian translation:
Basni Esopa. Moscow, 1968.


Gasparov, M. L. Antichnye literaturnye basni, Moscow, 1971.
Nøjgaard, M. La Fable antique, vol. 1. Copenhagen, 1964.



semi-legendary fabulist of ancient Greece. [Gk. Lit.: Harvey, 10]


?620--564 bc, Greek author of fables in which animals are given human characters and used to satirize human failings


References in periodicals archive ?
The act also allowed the firm to take a tax deduction for reasonable dividends paid on ESOP shares when employees elect to reinvest the dividends in additional shares of stock (Girard, 2002).
Among their many benefits, ESOPs can give retiring baby boomers a means to perpetuate their business through a sale to the employees, as well as provide liquidity and diversification for estates of business owners, and may allow business owners to defer capital gains.
As a result, an ESOP can be an excellent tool for succession planning, both for liquidity and transition reasons.
The formation of an ESOP is a great time to review the existing life insurance of the selling owner and the company to determine if it is adequate given the new plan.
Understanding ESOP Advantages The unique advantages of an ESOP are as follows.
For owners who have not found the previous exit options suitable, an ESOP is often a good alternative.
The complexity of the rules means that all parties (the company, the ESOP trustee and the selling shareholders) need experienced professional advisers both when the ESOP is established and for ongoing maintenance and operation.
Moreover, 82 per cent of companies involved in the study indicated that their revenue increased after applying ESOPs while 72 per cent indicated that they saw an increase in their profitability.
In a closely held company, an ESOP creates a market for the owners' otherwise non-liquid shares, allowing them to cash out and diversify their portfolios.
Sale to your employees through an ESOP may be the best way to ensure the continued continuity of your business.
Henceforth, an "NOL preservation ESOP" must have as participants at least 50% of the average number of employees at the loss entity (and members of its controlled corporate group) during the three-year period preceding the day of the ESOP acquisition.
Legal documents needed to be prepared (stock purchase agreement, ESOP loan, pledge agreement, promissory note and several others).