Essen

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Essen

(ĕs`ən), city (1994 pop. 622,380), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, on the Ruhr River. The major industrial center of the RuhrRuhr
, region, c.1,300 sq mi (3,370 sq km), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany; a principal manufacturing center of Germany. The Ruhr lies along, and north of, the Ruhr River (145 mi/233 km long), which rises in the hills of central Germany and flows generally west to the
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 district, it was the seat of the famous KruppKrupp
, family of German armament manufacturers. The family settled in Essen in the 16th cent. The core of the great Krupp industrial empire was started by Friedrich Krupp, 1787–1826, who built a small steel plant c.1810.
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 steelworks. Essen is a retail trade center, a rail junction, and a steel and electricity producer. Its diversified industrial base includes chemical, glass, textile, and precision-instrument plants. The region's last coal mine closed in 1986 and in recent years there has a move away from heavy industry into the service and technology sectors. Essen grew up around a Benedictine convent (founded in the mid-9th cent.). It was a small imperial state, ruled by the abbess of the convent, from the 13th cent. until 1802, when it passed to Prussia. The city's main industrial growth dates from the second half of the 19th cent. Essen was heavily bombed during World War II, but was rebuilt in modern style after 1945. The city has a number of large parks. There is a noteworthy cathedral (9th–14th cent.).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Essen

 

a city in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the Land (state) of North Rhine-Westphalia. Population, 677,600 (1976). Essen, which lies between the Ruhr River, on the south, and the Rhine-Herne Canal on the north, is situated in the center of the Ruhr Coal Basin.

The city is a major industrial, trade, and financial center of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a transportation hub with a well-developed network of railroads and highways; a river port as well as a port on the Rhine-Herne Canal, it handled 1.5 million tons of freight in 1975. The postwar years have seen a decline in the coal industry, with the number of persons employed dropping from 54,000 in 1958 to 10,300 in 1975. The metallurgical industry has also declined. The machine-building industry has expanded, especially in the areas of general, heavy, power, electrical engineering, and transportation machine building; there has also been growth in the aluminum industry.

A number of manufacturers’ associations, research centers, and research institutes, such as the Steinkohlenbergbauverein (Institute of Mining Research) and the Mining Institute, are located in Essen.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Essen

a city in W Germany, in North Rhine-Westphalia: the leading administrative centre of the Ruhr; university. Pop.: 589 499 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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