Essen(redirected from ESST)
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a city in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the Land (state) of North Rhine-Westphalia. Population, 677,600 (1976). Essen, which lies between the Ruhr River, on the south, and the Rhine-Herne Canal on the north, is situated in the center of the Ruhr Coal Basin.
The city is a major industrial, trade, and financial center of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a transportation hub with a well-developed network of railroads and highways; a river port as well as a port on the Rhine-Herne Canal, it handled 1.5 million tons of freight in 1975. The postwar years have seen a decline in the coal industry, with the number of persons employed dropping from 54,000 in 1958 to 10,300 in 1975. The metallurgical industry has also declined. The machine-building industry has expanded, especially in the areas of general, heavy, power, electrical engineering, and transportation machine building; there has also been growth in the aluminum industry.
A number of manufacturers’ associations, research centers, and research institutes, such as the Steinkohlenbergbauverein (Institute of Mining Research) and the Mining Institute, are located in Essen.