Court of Justice of the European Union

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Court of Justice of the European Union

Court of Justice of the European Union, judicial institution of the European Union (EU). Located in Luxembourg, it was founded in 1958 as the joint court for the three treaty organizations that were consolidated into the European Community (the predecessor of the EU) in 1967.

The institution now consists of two bodies. The Court of Justice is the direct descendant of the original joint court. It is now composed of 11 advocates general and one judge from each of the EU nations. All members of the court are appointed for renewable six-year terms by agreement among the EU nations. The court interprets EU treaties and legislation. Although it may attempt to reconcile differences between national and EU laws, ultimately its decisions overrule those of national courts; they have tended to expand the EU's domain. Increased litigation over the years led to the establishment of a lower court, the General Court (1988, formerly the Court of First Instance); a specialized civil service tribunal established in 2004 had its jurisdiction assumed by the General Court in 2016. Appeals to the Court of Justice are tightly restricted.

International law cases involving nations outside the EU are heard by the World Court in The Hague; the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, is recognized by the members of the Council of Europe and hears cases relating to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Personal Freedoms.

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References in periodicals archive ?
In September 2012, the Commission lodged an action for annulment at the EU Court of Justice feeling that legislators had acted illegally and did not take delegated acts into account.
In an effort to speed the closure and clean-up of the illegal landfills, the Commission has therefore decided to bring Bulgaria before the EU Court of Justice.
If no measures are notified to put an end to the violation of EU law within two months, the Commission may decide to refer Cyprus to the EU Court of Justice.
This judgement was confirmed in June 2012 by the EU Court of Justice (Case C-124/10 P).
On 27 September, the European Commission decided to take Greece to the EU Court of Justice over a landfill site in a protected area on the island of Zakynthos.
The Luxem-bourg-based EU Court of Justice found that the installation of such filters would be too costly and complex and likely hamper the use of legitimate content.
The EU Court of Justice yesterday backed moves to cut mobile roaming rates by up to 70%.
Even without a fully approved Constitution, the EU already has an executive branch (EU Commission), legislative branch (Council of Ministers and EU Parliament), and a judicial branch (the EU Court of Justice).
Thus ruled the EU Court of Justice, on 27 February, in a case referred by Belgium (C-1/13).