'It's also a connection to ultrafast technology, because some of the same sources using ultra dot pulse are used for EUV radiation
. There is interest in other wavelengths and it's worth exploring those as well, but the most demand at the moment is 13.5nm.'
The plasma emits EUV radiation
at a wavelength of 13.5nm in all directions, which is then collected by a mirror, and focused and directed through the lithography system to expose the silicon substrate.
The current technologies for generating high power EUV radiation
at 13.5 nm, referred to as laser produced plasma (LPP), employs the deposition of laser energy into a source material such as molten tin (Sn) droplets, creating ionized gas microplasma at electron temperatures of several tens of electron volts.
But the researchers found low levels of EUV radiation
only account for about 30 per cent of the collapse, while the increase in CO2 levels account for another 10 per cent at most.
The book begins with coverage of EUV source requirements and the status of the technology, followed by a review of atomic data and descriptions of theoretical models of discharge-production plasma (DPP)- and laser-produced plasma (LPP)-based EUV sources, DPP and LPP designs, and alternative technologies for producing EUV radiation
. Bakshi is employed at a semiconductor company.
The NIST/DARPA EUV Reflectometry Facility consists of three parts: the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III)  storage ring, which provides continuum EUV radiation
; the monochromator; and the reflectometer sample chamber.
Since EUV radiation
is absorbed by all materials, the lithography process must be performed in a vacuum and use reflective optics.
Unfortunately the radio data suggested that a dense concentration of cool hydrogen filled essentially all of our galaxy, making the ISM extremely opaque to EUV radiation
Analysis oi data from ROSAT's wide-field camera has produced a catalog of 383 sources of EUV radiation
. Most of these sources correspond to white dwarf stars or to "active, late-type" stars (SN: 5/23/92, p.344).
Caption: Trumpf uses a multi-stage amplifier process to generate the 30kW laser pulses required to ionise tin droplets and produce an intense plasma that emits EUV radiation
Finding a suitable source of EUV radiation
for the tool has been one of the major challenges; the source must be compact, bright, and free of contaminating debris.