Earliness


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Earliness

 

the ability of plants and animals to grow and develop rapidly. In plants earliness is determined by how rapid a state of biological and economic ripeness is attained. Earliness in animals is the reaching of physical, sexual, and economic maturity at an early age. Earliness is a hereditary character of certain plant species (lettuce, spinach, radish) and varieties (Kirghiz 16 and Early 12 winter wheat, Saratov 210 and Albidum 43 spring wheat, Bukovina 3TV corn, Number One Gribovskii 147 cabbage, Murom 36 cucumber) and of certain animal breeds (Jersey, Aberdeen-Angus, and Hereford cattle, Breitova and Livny swine, meat-and-fleece sheep breeds). Earliness depends on conditions of plant cultivation and on the feeding and maintenance of animals. It is developed by directed selection and culling.

In plants earliness is characterized by accelerated passage through the vegetative stages. In animals it involves a shortened gestation period, early replacement of milk teeth, rapid onset of sexual maturity, and large weight gains over short periods of time. Meat is obtained the soonest by fattening young animals of early maturing breeds. Earliness has economic significance. The cultivation of early ripening plant species and varieties results in a more productive use of land, since the same field may yield two harvests per season. When early maturing animals are raised, the turnover of the flock or herd is accelerated and a better return of products on feed is obtained.

REFERENCES

Borisenko, E. Ia. Razvedenie sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh, 4th ed. Moscow, 1967.
Gupalo, P. I. Vozrastnye izmeneniia rastenii i ikh znachenie v rastenievodstve. Moscow, 1969.
Novikov, E. A. Zakonomernosti razvitiia sel’skokhoziaistvennykh zhivotnykh. Moscow, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly, earliness is caused when the order is delivered sooner than the lower bound (a).
Alake, "Diallel analysis of earliness in cowpea," in Proceedings of the African crop Science Conference Proceedings, vol.
We formulate this problem as an OAS problem, considering the time-dependent earliness and tardiness penalties with the objective of maximising total revenue.
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Mean squares from line x tester analysis for various characters in upland cotton Source of DF Node Earliness Earliness Plant variation number (bolls (bolls height to 1st formed at opened at sympodia 90 DAP *) 120 DAP) Replications 3 0.36 0.77 0.90 137.90 Genotypes 22 4.63 ** 61.63 ** 43.05 ** 617.30 ** Crosses 14 5.59 ** 50.07 ** 37.20 ** 590.70 ** Lines (GCA) 4 3.00 ** 70.15 ** 41.85 ** 1045.00 ** Testers (GCA) 2 10.22 ** 12.22 ** 11.48 ** 952.30 ** Lines x tester (SCA) 8 5.73 ** 49.49 ** 41.30 ** 273.20 ** Error 42 0.76 0.62 0.56 12.14 Source of No.
where SU = time lost to set up the line and start to assemble the batch i [day], CB = time lost for the chessboard and to start to assemble the batch i [day], ET = earliness towards the due date [day], TT = tardiness towards the due date [day], [a.sub.i] = penalty rate for the setup of the line where batch i is to assemble [[euro]/day], [[beta].sub.i] = penalty rate for the time lost in the chessboard between the lines [[euro]/day], [[gamma].sub.i] = penalty rate of earliness to assemble batch i [[euro]/day], and [[delta].sub.i] = penalty rate of tardiness to assemble batch i [[euro]/day].
Plus, if the Wall O' Waters are installed before the tomatoes are transplanted, they can enhance earliness even more by pre-warming the soil.
Potential earliness in cotton varieties can contribute in successful crop rotation systems for countries producing both cotton and wheat for example such as the Syria.
Therefore minimizing total weighted completion time, tardiness and earliness is not only a measure of academic interest but also useful and important in practice.
Instead, counsel these patients that the earliness of the pregnancy precludes definitive assessment of gestational status.
The earliness and abundance of life found on Mars and Earth argues that this life did not originate here, but instead was seeded from elsewhere in the process called panspermia.