Eusebius says this gospel was used by the Ebionites
(76) For Orbe's summary of the Ebionite
position, see "??San Ireneo Adopcionista?" 33-4.
Giesler (1820), who had a profound influence on Baur, credited Semler with being "the first to express the opinion that the Nazoraenes and Ebionites
made up the same party ('Einer Partey')" (p.
Will you judaize like the followers of Corinth, like the Nazarites and Ebionites
? (67) In 1530, in anticipation of the Imperial Diet at Augsburg, Johannes Eck employed this same argument in the enlarged German edition of his Enchiridion locorum communium adversus Lutherum (Enchiridion of Commonplaces against Luther), which had first appeared in 1525:
The denials of the divinity of Christ by nineteenth-century critics like Strauss and Renan, which is Browning's context for this poem, were long preceded by the first- and second-century teachings of Cerinthus and the Ebionites
about the "double nature" of Jesus.
This "Gospel according to the Hebrews" (or simply "the Hebrew Gospel") is not to be confused with canonical Matthew (which, in Edwards' estimation, was the last of the three Synoptics to be written), but it is to be identified with the pseudepigraphal gospels of the Nazaraeans and the Ebionites
. (By way of contrast, Wilhelm Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha treats them as three separate documents [rev.
E., as Gentile Christianity gradually separated from Judaism, the early Church fathers had encountered and condemned various groups of Jewish talmidey Yeshu'a (disciples of Jesus such as Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and of alleged Gentile Judaisers.
Miller offers new translations of the four New Testament gospels; the Gospels of Thomas, Judas, and Mary; the Q Gospel; the Mystical Gospel of Mark; the Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas; the Egerton Gospel; the Gospel Oxrhynchus; the Gospels of the Hebrews, the Ebionites
, and the Nazoreans.
They may have thought that such communities did not offer them anything that did not possess already either individually or as members of the Jewish people," Groups of such Jews may have joined together, developed their own interpretations of Jesus' life and death, and created communities such as the Ebionites
and Elkesites that would be deemed heretical by Christians in later centuries.
Sumney on Paul's opponents, and Petri Luomanen on the Ebionites
 Some at least of the Ebionites
, a group of Jewish Christians influential in the early Palestinian church in the first and second centuries, thought that Matthew had misread Isaiah 7:14 (see below), and that Jesus was conceived naturally.
Indeed, one early sect of Jewish followers of Jesus, the Ebionites
who flourished around 100 AD, held that Jesus was conceived through normal sexual union between Joseph and Mary.