Ritschl's formulations reflecting the proportions of Jewish to Christian constituents in whatever mixture is labeled Jewish Christian survive in Hans Joachim Schoeps's descriptions of a group's or text's location within a spectrum ranging from "Great Church" Jewish Christians who accepted Paul to the Ebionites
with their low Christology and demand for proselytization.
Eusebius says this gospel was used by the Ebionites
To admit to a Roman governor to coming from the Roman province of Cilicia was less damaging to the great apostle than using the word `Cilician'.(65) The Jewish and Jewish-Christian material comes from two sources, Epiphanius (fourth century AD) and the Syriac writer Dionysius bar-Salibi (twelfth century AD).(66) According to Epiphanius' source, the Ascents of Jacob, the Ebionites
believed that Paul had been a Gentile who converted to Judaism and later apostatized.
Essays by other scholars deal with groups (the Jerusalem Church, Paul's Christ-believing Jewish opponents, And the Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and with texts (Q, Matthew, the Johannine writings, James, Revelation, the Didache, and the Pseudo-Clementines).
On "Jewish Christianity," we are treated to solid and thoughtful proposals that go far beyond conventional considerations of Ebionites
, Nazoreans, and the like.
The 'gospel' sources range from variant readings of the canonical gospels through the gospels 'of the Hebrews', 'of the Ebionites
', and 'of Nicodemus' to the rather neglected fragment of Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840, which scholarship has left without other soubriquet.
85-97), citing similarities in the baptismal practices of the Hemerobaptists, the Ebionites
, the Elchasaites, and the Mandaeans, notes a great deal of overlapping in Jewish and Christian understanding and practice, and concludes that this delayed the parting of the ways.
(67) Bonaventure accused the early leaders of the Church, including Peter, of falling into the sin of legalism, which also spawned the first heresy of the Ebionites
, who taught the Law was to be observed along with the Gospels.
Each unit is studied in terms of its internal narrative form and structure, but also diachronically, in relation not to chronology and history, but to co-texts, principally of course Matthew, Luke, John, but also occasionally to the Acts of Pilate, Didache, Gospel of the Ebionites
, Gospel of Peter and Gospel of Thomas.
3.19.1 is devoted to contextualizing Irenaeus's understanding of sonship and filial adoption in order to clarify the use of contemporary concepts against the Ebionites
. In his polemic against Valentinian anthropological determinism (Adv.
The proof can be seen from the writings of Epiphanius who interchangeably used the terms Ebionite
and Nazareans in the late 4th century in his attack on them for rejecting godhood of Jesus and the Church.
Brown relates the emergence of Islam to the Ebionite
heresy of a gnostic Judeo-Christianity whose theology maintained the Mosaic Law as reformed by Jesus the prophet.