hemorrhagic fever

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Related to Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Ebola virus

hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers caused by Ebola virus and Marburg virus the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a virus of the genus Ebolavirus, which belongs to a family (Filoviridae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The viruses, named for a river in Congo (Kinshasa) near where the first species was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found primarily in Africa, SW and central Asia, and SE Europe, and Rift Valley feverRift Valley fever,
acute viral disease that affects domestic livestock and can be transmitted to humans. The disease is most common in E and S Africa, but also occurs widely in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
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, which can result in hemorrhagic fever in humans and is found in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, are typically transmitted to humans from livestock by ticks or mosquitoes respectively or by contact with fluids or tissues from infected animals. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment. An experimental vaccine for Ebola was developed and used in a limited manner against the strain that caused the 2013–15 West African outbreak, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Mechanisms underlying coagulation abnormalities in Ebola hemorrhagic fever: overexpression of tissue factor in primate monocytes/macrophages is a key event.
SARS (suspected of being transmitted from animals such as civet cats and ferret badgers) and diseases strongly suspected to be common to both people and some primates (including Ebola hemorrhagic fever and simian immunodeficiency virus) are examples of those that worry many public health officials.
The exercise, carried out by some 130 quarantine officials and medical staff, was based on the scenario that a flight bound for the airport was found to be carrying a passenger possibly infected with Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The passenger aircraft was guided to a special parking spot separate from regular gates.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most virulent viral diseases, causing death in 50-90% of cases.
"The fact of the matter was that Ebola hemorrhagic fever, along with Marburg and Lassa, were diseases of poverty and bad hospitals," writes Regis.
Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains.
Previously, NNDSS did not receive electronic data about incident cases of specific viral hemorrhagic fevers; instead, data were collected in aggregate and reported in Table 1 as "Viral hemorrhagic fevers." In response to the need to monitor viral hemorrhagic fevers separately, beginning January 1,2015, cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Guanarito hemorrhagic fever, Junin hemorrhagic fever, Lassa virus infection, Lujo virus infection, Machupo hemorrhagic fever, Marburg fever, and Sabia-associated hemorrhagic fever will be reported separately.
Coloma said the DOH had laid out and was "still strengthening a multisectoral response plan" to prevent the entry into the country of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever, which has killed more than 4,000 people in seven countries.
As the number of deaths from Ebola hemorrhagic fever approached and passed the 1,000 mark, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that clinical trials of a preventative vaccine for the Ebola virus made by British pharma company GlaxoSmithKline may begin this month and be made available by 2015.
Somerset, KY, August 11, 2014 --(PR.com)-- The UK Independent calls Ebola virus disease (EVD) - also referred to as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) - "a biological doomsday device that conspires with the human body to bring death in the most gruesome fashion." There is no known vaccine or cure for the horrific disease, which is fatal for 66.4% (2 out of 3) of those who contract it.