# anomaly

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## anomaly

1. Astronomy
a. the angle between a planet, the sun, and the previous perihelion of the planet
b. the angle between the periapsis of a particular point on a circle round the orbit as seen from the centre of the orbit. This point is obtained by producing a perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse through the orbiting body until it reaches the circumference of the circle
c. the angle between the periapsis of an orbit and the position of an imaginary body orbiting at a constant angular speed and in the same period as the real orbiting body
2. Geology
a. a deviation from the normal value of gravity at the earth's surface, caused by density differences at depth, for example those caused by a buried mineral body
b. a magnetic field, for example one produced by a buried mineral body, that deviates from an expected or standard value, usually that of the earth's magnetic field
Anomaly

## anomaly

Any of three related angles by means of which the position, at a particular time, of a body moving in an elliptical orbit can be calculated. For a body S moving around the focus, F, of an orbit (see illustration), the true anomaly is the angle v made by the body, the focus, and the point, P, of nearest approach. For a body orbiting the Sun, P is the perihelion. The angle is measured in the direction of motion of S. If an auxiliary circle is drawn centered on the midpoint, C, of the major axis of the elliptical orbit, then the eccentric anomaly is the angle E between CS′ and CP, where S′ lies on the circle and is vertically above S. The mean anomaly is the angle M between P, F, and a hypothetical body moving at a constant angular speed equal to the mean motion of S. It is thus the product of the mean motion and the time interval since S passed P.

The eccentric and mean anomalies are related by Kepler's equation:

E e sinE = M

where e is the eccentricity of the orbit. The coordinates (x , y) of the body S can be found from the equations

x = a (cosE e )

y = a sinE √(1 – e 2)

where a is the semimajor axis of the orbit. See also equation of center; orbital elements.

## anomaly

[ə′näm·ə·lē]
(astronomy)
In celestial mechanics, the angle between the radius vector to an orbiting body from its primary (the focus of the orbital ellipse) and the line of apsides of the orbit, measured in the direction of travel, from the point of closest approach to the primary (perifocus). Also known as true anomaly.
(biology)
An abnormal deviation from the characteristic form of a group.
(geology)
A local deviation from the general geological properties of a region.
(medicine)
Any part of the body that is abnormal in its position, form, or structure.
(meteorology)
The deviation of the value of an element (especially temperature) from its mean value over some specified interval.
(oceanography)
The difference between conditions actually observed at a serial station and those that would have existed had the water all been of a given arbitrary temperature and salinity.
(science and technology)
A deviation beyond normal variations.

## anomaly

Abnormality or deviation. Pronounced "uh-nom-uh-lee," it is a favorite word among computer people when complex systems produce output that is inexplicable. See software conflict and anomaly detection.
References in periodicals archive ?
The third patient was a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly, coronary heart disease, remote myocardial infarction, and a ventricular aneurysm when he was admitted.
Evidence-based case report for analgesic and anesthetic management of a parturient with Ebstein's Anomaly and Wolff-Parkinson syndrome.
Echocardiographic assessment of Ebstein's anomaly. Echocardiography 2015;32 Suppl 2:S177-88.
This is a rare case of an adult who presented with asymptomatic Ebstein's anomaly. To our knowledge, this represents the fifth reported case of a new diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly in the setting of endocarditis and the second case of Ebstein's anomaly and endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser [2, 4, 5].
CONCLUSION: A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition is essential for the successful anaesthetic management in patients with Ebstein's anomaly and the anaesthetic technique chosen should be individualized based on the cardiac status, type of surgery, site of surgery and also the duration of surgery.
The diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly is performed with echocardiography (4).
DISCUSSION: Ebstein's anomaly is a very rare congenital heart disease.
One and a half ventricle repair for Ebstein's anomaly. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 51: 665-8.
Lithium is associated with a 0.05% risk of Ebstein's anomaly, a modest teratogenic effect.
The risk associated with first-trimester exposure ranges from a relatively modest 0.05% risk of Ebstein's anomaly with lithium to an approximately 8% risk of cardiovascular malformations and neural tube defects with sodium valproate.

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