Échevin

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Échevin

 

a type of judicial and administrative official in the northern cities of feudal France. Depending on the degree of autonomy enjoyed by a given city, its échevins were either appointed by the seigneur or elected by the citizens; the elections were sometimes rigged, however. As a rule, the council of échevins was composed of members of the patriciate, headed by important merchants.

The functions of the échevins varied from place to place. In some cities, they managed trade, set prices for goods, and supervised the markets, and in some cities they had the additional duty of collecting city taxes. In other places, however, their functions were strictly judicial.

The institution of the échevins was abolished during the French Revolution by a decree dated Dec. 14, 1789.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
These illustrious ladies appeared so lovely on the sign, -- they presented to the astonished eyes such an assemblage of lilies and roses, the enchanting result of the change of style in Pittrino -- they assumed the poses of sirens so Anacreontically -- that the principal echevin, when admitted to view this capital piece in the salle of Cropole, at once declared that these ladies were too handsome, of too animated a beauty, to figure as a sign in the eyes of passers-by.
It was necessary to thank the echevin for his kindness, which Cropole did.
He composed the sign of six physicians, with the legend; the echevin applauded and authorized it.
Par l'ordre du Senechal de Castelnau, et de l'Echevin de Cahors, servantes fideles du tres vaillant et tres puissant Edouard, Prince de Galles et d'Aquitaine.
Na Idade-Media, nas cidades administrativas por "echevin (10)" (norte da Franca) ou por consulado (sul da Franca), isto e, por carta constitucional, os magistrados eleitos ou designados para a funcao, eram chamados "modernos".
Diatoms differ from nanophytoplankton in their requirements of silicates, an increased consumption of iron and higher levels of nutrient saturation due to its larger size (Echevin et al.
Ainsi, certains militants ouvriers, comme le platrier Michael Quigley, sont a la fois membre du conseil d'administration du Quebec Mechanics' Institute (1832-38), promoteur du Conseil des metiers de Quebec (1834) et organisateur d'assemblees patriotes (1837) (28); d'autres, comme le typographe Joseph Savard, sont tour a tour cofondateurs de la Societe typographique de Quebec (1836), instigateur du theatre ouvrier a Quebec (1839) et echevin du quartier Saint-Jean (1844-45) (29).
Ainsi, les premieres annees de leur application voient-elles se poursuivre d'une part ce que l'Echevin de l'urbanisme qualifie lui-meme de [much less than] politique qui rencontre les principes de la Charte d'Athenes.
Recientemente el tipico patron de distribucion espacial de clorofila-a fue comparado en base a datos de satelite e in situ, hallandose que las maximas concentraciones de clorofila-a (5-10 mg x [m.sup.-3]) decrecen gradualmente hacia fuera de la costa con valores aproximadamente de 0.5 a 1.5 mg x [m.sup.-3] entre los 200-300 km de la costa, presentando los datos satelitales una zona de alta productividad mas estrecha que con las observaciones de data in situ (Echevin et.
This model is similar in form to that of Buffeteau and Echevin (2003).
219 (1997) (study of the United States); Damien Echevin, L'individualisation de l'impot sur le revenue: equitable ou pas?, 160 ECONOMIE ET PREVISION 149 (2003) (study of Europe).