Optimizing food distribution in closed-circuit cultivation of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus: Echinoidea
Edwards, comensal de Loxechinus albus (Molina) (Echinodermata, Echinoidea
Descriptions of new species of Cainozoic Echinoidea
Emlet, "Developmental mode and species geographic range in regular sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea
)," Evolution, vol.
Macro-invertebrates present included squat lobster, Munida quadrispina; hermit crabs (Paguriidae); spot shrimp, Pandalus platyceros; bryozoans; hydroids; brachiopods; seawhips (Pennatulacea); seastars (Asteroidea); brittlestars (Ophiuridae); sea urchins (Echinoidea
); sea cucumbers (Holothuridae); and gastropods, in addition to the sponges.
Responses of ovaries and testes of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea
) to dietary administration of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone.
The Echinodermata are represented by a number of groups: Crinoidea, represented by articulated calyxes and disarticulated columnals and brachials; Blastoidea, represented by columnals and calyxes, especially those of Pentremites conoideus; Echinoidea
, represented by disarticulated interambulacral plates as well as several largely intact specimens; and Asteroidea, represented by one nearly complete specimen, as well as disarticulated dorsal plates from the same species.
Phylum Echinodermata Class Echinoidea
Order Arbacioida Family Arbaciidae
Cretaceous and Cenozoic Echinoidea
of the Pacific Coast of North America.
Facultative planktotrophy in the tropical echinoid Clypeaster rosaceus (Linnaeus) and a comparison with obligate planktotrophy in Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray) (Clypeasteroida: Echinoidea