school of Paris

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school of Paris.

The center of international art until after World War II, Paris was a mecca for artists who flocked there to participate in the most advanced aesthetic currents of their time. The school of Paris is not one style; the term describes many styles and movements. The practitioners and adherents of fauvismfauvism
[Fr. fauve=wild beast], name derisively hurled at and cheerfully adopted by a group of French painters, including Matisse, Rouault, Derain, Vlaminck, Friesz, Marquet, van Dongen, Braque, and Dufy.
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, cubismcubism,
art movement, primarily in painting, originating in Paris c.1907. Cubist Theory

Cubism began as an intellectual revolt against the artistic expression of previous eras.
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, and orphismorphism,
a short-lived movement in art founded in 1912 by Robert Delaunay, Frank Kupka, the Duchamp brothers, and Roger de la Fresnaye. Apollinaire coined the term orphism
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 all belonged to the school of Paris, as well as many artists whose styles fit into no one category. After the war, when New York City challenged Paris's preeminence in the art world, the school of Paris continued to produce major figures and styles in art: Jean Dubuffet and the Art Brut school are recent examples.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Paris, School of


(Ecole de Paris), the conventional designation for an international group of artists that formed in Paris mainly between 1910 and the late 1920’s.

In a narrow sense, the term “school of Paris” is used to designate a group of artists from various countries who, in the opinion of a number of critics, created their own variant of expressionism, marked by elements of fantasy and, at the same time, by extremely intimate images. Such artists included A. Modigliani from Italy, M. Chagall from Russia, J. Pascin from Bulgaria, C. Soutine from Lithuania, M. Kisling from Poland, and T. Foujita from Japan.

In a broad sense, the term “school of Paris” is used to designate all artists, both French and foreign, who lived in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, the favorite haunt of bohemian artists. These artists continued, in various ways, the experiments of the early 20th century (fauvism, cubism) or created new movements (dadaism, surrealism) that were similar to avant-gardism in literature.


Nacenta, R. Ecole de Paris. Neuchâtel, 1960.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
These abject purveyors of so-called modern art then get thoroughly abused in the name of 'ecole de paris' and recoil back in horror against those who are confirmed traditionalists.
Il s'agit du livre de Serge Fauchereau, Expressionnisme, Dada, surrealisme et autres ismes, du eollectif intitule L'ecole de Paris 1904-1929, la part de l'autre, et enfin du livre Cinema francais 1900-1939, pour un monde different, d'Alain Weber.
En complement de son exposition consacree a ce theme, le Musee d'art moderne de la ville de Paris a publie un tres beau catalogue intitule L'Ecole de Paris 1904-1929, la part de l'autre.
Alongside his own exhibition, James brought together a dozen small paintings and drawings by a nearly forgotten Russian-born painter of the Ecole de Paris, Serge Charchoune (1889-1975).
Howard Hodgkin once called a painting After Vuillard; the title sums up much of what some admire about his work as well as what leaves others so indifferent: the echoes of Ecole de Paris intimism and an Epicurean redeployment of stylistic features abstracted not just from Vuillard but also from Bonnard and Matisse.
But the "Fire Paintings" were disappointing, as were the "Cosmogonies," in that they looked like the Informel, tachist works of the so-called Jeune Ecole de Paris that Klein had sought to debunk from the outset with his monochromes.
The Ecole de Paris would dominate everything in the '60s and '70s as well, so he could concentrate on his works and their relation to language.
He presented an alternative to the superacademic style of the Ecole de Paris; he's always been more direct and pragmatic.
Glossing over the wonderful mess of European painting circa 1945-55 (only a 1947-48 Wols painting nodded to Ecole de Paris abstraction) in order to avoid any sense of caesura, the exhibition's smooth trajectory suggested that it is possible today to draw an unwavering line between modernism's "achievements" and postmodernism's "critiques." This overtly stable account made the show's conclusion, a radically disparate group of works from the 1990s, all the more disturbing.
It's difficult to subscribe to Gingeras's view, put forth in the catalogue, that the lamentable Buffet was an "antagonistic thorn in the side of European post-war art history." His existential kitsch may briefly have looked oppositional in the eyes of the post-Occupation abstractionist Ecole de Paris but thereafter could happily have hung on the railings of Montmartre: He's bad, but the wrong sort of bad.
Kunsthalle director Gotz Adriani has also decided to include works by Leger, Picasso, Beckmann, Kandinsky, and Marc, following up on William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner's lengthy investigation of Rousseau's widespread influence on various painters of the Ecole de Paris and in Germany that appeared in the catalogue to the 1984-85 show.
JEP: The acronym stands for "Jeune Ecole de Paris," an umbrella concept invoked in the '50s to designate the type of abstraction (indifferently labeled "tachisme," "informel," or "abstraction lyrique") initiated by the likes of Pierre Soulages, Jean Bazaine, Alfred Manessier, Viera da Silva, Bram van Velde, and Hans Hartung immediately after the war and later emulated by an army of imitators.

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