Economics, Encyclopedias and Dictionaries of

Economics, Encyclopedias and Dictionaries of


reference works that contain in a systematized form summaries of information on the economic sciences and on individual branches of economics. The following types of encyclopedias and dictionaries of economics are distinguished: general encyclopedias of economics, special encyclopedias that deal with individual branches of economic science, dictionaries that define terminology, and multilingual dictionaries of equivalent economic terms. The subject matter in encyclopedias of economics may be arranged either in alphabetical order or by topic; with rare exceptions, the organization of dictionaries of economics is alphabetical.

The first works that resembled dictionaries of economics appeared in the late 17th and early 18th centuries in Great Britain, Germany, France, and other European states. At first, such works were glossaries contained in monographs. For example, in Great Britain, E. Hatton included a “Merchant’s Glossary” in The Merchant’s Magazine, or Trades-man’s Treasury (London, 1695; 9th ed., London, 1734). In the 18th century, encyclopedias and dictionaries of economics were first compiled as independent works. The immense 242-volume Oeconomische Enzyklopadie, oder Allgemeines System der Staats-, Stadt-, Haus-, und Landwirtschaft, in alphabetischer Ordnung (Berlin, 1773–1858) deserves special mention. It was initiated by the German economist J. G. Krünitz, who edited 72 of the volumes. The Scotsman J. R. McCulloch, who wrote works on economics, compiled A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation (London, 1832). By 1890, McCulloch’s dictionary had been published in 30 editions in Great Britain and the USA.

Russia. In the 18th century, M. V. Lomonosov attempted to compile a lexicon of merchandising terminology. The results were published much later as Kratkoe raspolozhenie sochiniae-mogo ekonomicheskogo leksikona rossiiskikh produktov (A Concise Plan for a Compiled Economic Lexicon of Russian Commodities; St. Petersburg, 1865) and Reeslr rossiiskim produklam (A Register of Russian Commodities; St. Petersburg, 1869). Various encyclopedias and dictionaries of economics were compiled in the fields of merchandising, commerce, finance, and accounting. They included I. S. Vavilov’s Spravochnyi kommercheskii slovar’ (Reference Dictionary of Commerce; St. Petersburg, 1856), A. I. Ipatov’s Kommercheskii slovar’ (Dictionary of Commerce; St. Petersburg, 1898), and I. P. Babenko’s Torgovo-promyshlennyi slovar’ (Dictionary of Commerce and Industry; St. Petersburg, 1900).

USSR. The publication of the first Marxist general encyclopedia of economics, Ekonomicheskaia entsiklopediia: Politicheskaia ekonomiia (Encyclopedia of Economics: Political Economy; vols. 1–2, Moscow, 1972–75), was begun in 1972. The editor in chief of the first two volumes was A. M. Rumiantsev. The encyclopedia deals with a wide range of theoretical problems in Marxist-Leninist political economy, as well as with problems of current interest pertaining to the planning and control of the national economy, economic analysis, finance, and statistics. It presents a critique of bourgeois economic theories and, for the first time, attempts to show the development of economic thought in various countries and by various peoples. The encyclopedia also deals with problems equally within the purview of the economic, sociological, and juridical sciences.

A list of some other important Soviet encyclopedias and dictionaries of economics follows.

Ekonomicheskaia entsiklopediia: Promyshlennost’ i slroitel’stvo (Encyclopedia of Economics: Industry and Construction). A. N. Efimov, editor in chief. Vols. 1–3. Moscow, 1962–65. Intended mainly for personnel in industry and construction.

Ekonomicheskaia zhizn SSSR: Khronika sobytii i faktov, 1917–1965 (Economic Life of the USSR: Chronicle of Events and Facts, 1917–1965). Vols. 1–2, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.

Politekonomicheskii slovar’ (Dictionary of Political Economy). Moscow, 1964; 2nd ed., Moscow, 1972.

Finansovo-kreditnyi slovar’ (Dictionary of Finance and Credit). Vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1961–64.

Statisticheskii slovar’ (Dictionary of Statistics). Moscow, 1965. The first reference work in the USSR on all branches of statistical science and practice.

Entsyklopediia narodnoho hospodarstva Ukrains’koi RSR (Encyclopedia of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR), vols. 1–4. S. M. Iampol’skii, editor in chief. Kiev, 1969–72.

Ekonomichnyi slovnyk (Dictionary of Economics). Edited by P. Baqrii and S. Doroguntsov. Kiev, 1973.

Vorob’eva, S. A., and T. K. Molodid. Russko-ukrainskii slovar’ sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoi terminologii (Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary of Socioeconomic Terminology), 2nd ed. Kiev, 1976.

Nasyrova, M. Kratkii russko-kazakhskii tolkovyi slovar’ solsial’no-ekonomicheskikh terminov (Concise Russian-Kazakh Defining Dictionary of Socioeconomic Terms). Alma-Ata, 1968.

Russko-moldavskii ekonomicheskii slovar’ (Russian-Moldavian Dictionary of Economics). Kishinev, 1973.

Russko-litovskii slovar’ ekonomicheskikh terminov (Russian-Lithuanian Dictionary of Economic Terms). Vilnius, 1966.

Other countries. A list of the leading encyclopedias and dictionaries of economics from the 18th to the 20th centuries follows.

18th century (chronological)

Chomel, N. Dictionnaire oeconomique, contenant divers moyens d’augmenter et conserver son bien, vols. 1–2. Lyon, 1709; 4thed., Commercy, 1741.

Allgemeines oeconomisches Lexikon. Leipzig, 1731; 4th ed., vols. 1–2, Leipzig, 1764.

Rolt, R. A New Dictionary of Trade and Commerce. London, 1756.

Dizionario del cittadino, o sia, Ristretto storico, teorico e pratico del commercio, vols. 1–2. Nice, 1763.

19th century (chronological)

Leuchs, J. M. Ausführliches Handelslexikon, vols. 1–2. Nuremberg, 1824–26.

Schiebe, A. Universallexikon der Handelswissenschaften, vols. 1–3. Leipzig, 1837–39.

Renandière, B. Dictionnaire des principaux termes du commerce, de la banque et de l’industrie. Brussels, 1840.

Dictionnaire de l’économie politique. Edited by Coquelin and Guillaumin. Vols. 1–2. Brussels, 1853–54; Paris, 1873.

Boccardo, G. Dizionario della economia politica e del commercio cosi teoretico come pratico, vols. 1–4. Turin, 1857–61; 2nd ed., vols. 1–2, Milan, 1885–87.

Rentzsch, H. Handwörterbuch der Volkswirtschaftslehre. Leipzig, 1865–66; 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1869–70.

Scarpa, V. G. Vocabulario della lingua italiana mercantile. Turin, 1874.

Spamer, O. Illustriertes Handelslexikon, vols. 1–4. Leipzig, 1874–79.

Furrer, A. Volkswirtschaftliches Lexikon der Schweiz, vols. 1–4. Bern, 1885–92.

Say, L., and J. Chailley. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’économie politique, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1891–97; 2nd ed., vols. 1–2, Paris, 1900.

Palgrave, R. H. I. Dictionary of Political Economy. Edited by H. Higgs. Vols. 1–3. London-New York, 1894–99; London, 1923–26; New York, 1963.

Wörterbuch der Volkswirtschaft. Edited by L. Elster. Vols. 1–2. Jena, 1898; 4th ed., vols. 1–3, Jena, 1931–33.

20th century (by country)


Ikonomicheska entsiklopediia. I. Stefanov, managing editor. Vols. 1–2. Sofia, 1971–72.

Shopov, D. Kratuk ikonomicheski rechnik za rabotnika, 2nd ed. Sofia, 1974.


Pruša, J. Příučni slovník ekonomiky práce. Prague, 1960.

Mervart, J., et al. Slovník svétové ekonomiky. Prague, 1967.

Stručný slovník plánovania národného hospodárstva, Bratislava, 1969.

Ekonomická encyklopedie, vols. 1–2. Prague, 1972.


Guyot, J., and A. Raffalovich. Dictionnaire de commerce, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1899–1901.

Peuchet, J. Dictionnaire universe! d’économie politique, vols. 1–4. Paris, 1910.

Romeuf, J., and G. Pasqualaggi. Dictionnaire de sciences économiques, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1956–58.

Suavet, T. Dictionnaire économique et social. Paris, 1963; 6th ed., Paris, 1970.

Glossaire des termes relatifs aux pratiques commerciales restrictives. Paris, 1965.

Dictionnaire de science économique. Edited by A. Cotta. Tours, 1968; 3rd ed., Tours, 1972.

Mathieu, G. Vocabulaire de l’économic. Paris, 1970.

Bouvier-Ajam, M., J. Ibarrola, and N. Pasquarelli. Dictionnaire économique et social. Paris, 1975.

German Democratic Republic

Rhodin, R. Fachausdrücke des Aussenhandels. Berlin, 1958.

Ökonomisches Lexikon, vols. 1–2. Berlin, 1966–67; 2nd ed., Berlin, 1970–71.

Wörterbuch der Ökonomie Sozialismus, 2nd ed. Edited by W. Ehlert et al. Berlin, 1969; 3rd ed., Berlin, 1973.

Germany (before 1945)

Schirmer, A. Wörterbuch der deutschen Kaufmannssprache auf geschichtlichen Grundlagen. Strassburg, 1911; 2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1954.

Bülow, F. Wörterbuch der Wirtschaft. Leipzig, 1936.

Germany, Federal Republic of

Dr. Gablers Wirtschaftslexikon. Edited by R. Sellien and H. Sellien. Vols. 1–2. Wiesbaden, 1956; 8th ed., Wiesbaden, 1971.

Lexikon der modernen Wirtschaftspraxis. Edited by H. Eckardt. Munich, 1968.


Közgazdasági kislexikon. Edited by O. Gadó. Budapest, 1972.


Dictionary of Economics. Edited by Vira Raghu et al. Nagpur, 1951.


Rast, N. Farkhang-e bazargani (Dictionary of Commerce). Tehran, 1944.


Papi, G. U. Dizionario di economía. Turin, 1967.


Shio Kiyoshi and Kimata Hizo. Shogyo keizai yogo jiten (Dictionary of Economic and Commercial Terms). Tokyo, 1958.

Hisatake Masao, Konzumi Akira, and Nagasawa Koreyuki. Kindai keizaigaku yogo jiten (Dictionary of Economic Science). Tokyo, 1967.

Korea, People’s Democratic Republic of

Kyongjehak sajon (Dictionary of Economics), vols. 1–2. Pyongyang, 1970.


Bedrijfseconomische encyclopedic Edited by J. G. Stridiron. Vols. 1–5. Utrecht, 1947–52.

Encyclopedic van de bedrijfseconomie. A. Mey, editor in chief. Vols. 1–6. Bussum, 1969–71.


Mały slownik ekonomiczny. Edited by M. Librowski. Warsaw, 1958.

Mała encyklopedia ekonomiczna. M. Pohorille, editor in chief. Warsaw, 1962. Second ed., edited by K. Secomski, Warsaw, 1974.


Eldem, R., H. Mabon, and H. Uggla. Bonniers ekonomiska lexikon. Stockholm, 1971.

USA and Great Britain (published or reprinted simultaneously in both countries)

Horton, B. J., J. Ripley, and M. B. Schnapper. Dictionary of Modern Economics. Washington, D.C., 1948.

Sloan, H., and A. Zürcher. Dictionary of Economics. New York, 1949; 5th ed., New York, 1971.

Nemmers, E. E., and C. C. Janzen. Dictionary of Economics and Business. New York, 1959; 3rd ed., Totowa, N.J., 1974.

Hanson, J. L. A Dictionary of Economics and Commerce. London, 1965; 4th ed., London, 1974.

The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Modern Economics. New York, 1965; 2nd ed., New York, 1973.

Gilpin, A. Dictionary of Economic Terms. London, 1966; 3rd ed., London, 1973.

Bannock, G., R. E. Baxter, and R. Rees. The Penguin Dictionary of Economics. Harmondsworth, England, 1972.

Greener, M., ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Commerce. Harmondsworth, England, 1974.


Andolšek, D., and F. Ažman. Mali gospodarski slovar. Ljubljana, 1958.

Multilingual dictionaries. Multilingual dictionaries of equivalent economic terms are of great practical value, especially in foreign trade, since mistranslations of foreign economic terminology often give rise to legal claims. A list of the leading multilingual dictionaries of equivalent economic terms follows.

Kleines Aussenhandels Wörterbuch in acht Sprachen: Deutsch, Russisch, Polnisch, Tschechisch, Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch. Berlin, 1960.

Glossary of Economics, Including Soviet Terminology, in English/American-French-German-Russian. Compiled and arranged by F. Clifford-Vaughan and M. Clifford-Vaughan. Amsterdam, 1966; French ed., Paris, 1966.

Kohls, S. Ökonomisches Wörterbuch, Aussenwirtschaft: Deutsch, Russisch, Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch. Berlin, 1972.

Munniksma, F. International Business Dictionary in Nine Languages: English, Esperanto, Deutsch, Español, Français, Italiano, Nederlands, Portugués, Svensk. Deventer, Netherlands, 1974.

Izrailevich, E. E. Kratkii russko-angliiskii kommercheskii slovar’ (Concise Russian-English Dictionary of Commerce). Moscow, 1946.

Izrailevich, E. E. Anglo-russkii obshcheekonomicheskii i vneshnetorgovyi slovar’ (English-Russian Dictionary of General Economics and Foreign Trade). Moscow, 1955; 3rd ed., Moscow, 1972.

Senin, V. P. Kitaisko-russkii i russko-kitaiskii slovar’ ek-sportno-importnykh tovarov (Chinese-Russian and Russian-Chinese Dictionary of Imports and Exports). Edited by E. D. Oksiukevich. Moscow, 1963.

Schaarschuh, F. J. Wörterbuch des Handels. Vol. 1: Russisch-Deutsch, vol. 2: Deutsch-Russisch. Leipzig, 1967.

Al’bertova, E. L. Kratkii russko-frantsuzskii i frantsuzsko-russkii kommercheskii slovar’ (Concise Russian-French and French-Russian Dictionary of Commerce). Moscow, 1951.

Zozulenko, L. M. Kratkii pol’sko-russkii i russko-pol’skii vneshnetorgovyi slovar’ (Concise Polish-Russian and Russian-Polish Dictionary of Foreign Trade). Moscow, 1955.

Ul’tsiferov, O. G., and B. I. Shurshalin. Khindi-russkii i russko-khindi obshcheekonomicheskii i vneshnetorgovyi slovar’ (Hindi-Russian and Russian-Hindi Dictionary of General Economics and Foreign Trade). Edited by A. I. Medovyi. Moscow, 1974.

Aliskevičová, A. Krátký česko-ruský a rusko-český economic ký slovník. Prague,1965.

Nelskylä, G., and P. Priklonsky. Svensk-rusk teknisk och kommersiell ordbok. Stockholm, 1958.

Tulukov, M. A. Russko-iaponskii obshcheekonomicheskii i vneshnetorgovyi slovar’ (Russian-Japanese Dictionary of General Economics and Foreign Trade). Moscow, 1964.


Kaufman, I. M. Terminologicheskie slovari. Moscow, 1961. Pages 302–17.
Malclès, L. N. Les Sources du travail bibliographique, vol. 2: Bibliographies spécialisées (sciences humaines). Geneva-Lille, 1952. Pages 628–30.
Zischka, G. A. Index lexicorum. Vienna, 1959. Pages 183–92.
Guide to Reference Material, 3rd ed. Edited by A. J. Walford. Vol. 2. London, 1975. Pages 132–37.


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