Edelman, Gerald Maurice

Edelman, Gerald Maurice,

1929–2014, American biochemist and neuroscientist, b. Queens, N.Y., M.D. Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1954; Ph.D. Rockefeller Institute, 1960. He was a professor at the Rockefeller Institute (later Rockefeller Univ.) from 1966 to 1992, when he joined the faculty at the Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, Calif. He founded (1981) the Neurosciences Institute while at Rockefeller Univ.; it moved to San Diego, Calif., in 1993 and then (1995) to the Scripps campus, later (2012) moving to a separate facility in La Jolla.

Edelman shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Rodney R. PorterPorter, Rodney Robert,
1917–85, British biochemist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1948. He was a researcher at the National Institute of Medical Research, England (1949–1960), and a professor at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School–Univ.
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 for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies, infection-fighting proteins produced by the body. The two worked independently and used different techniques to construct a complete model of the antibody molecule, a giant that is made up of more than 1,300 amino acids. Their pioneering work led to an explosion of research activity in immunology. From the mid-1970s Edelman focused on neuroscience, and developed the theory of neuronal group selection, also known as neural Darwinism, as part of a biologically based explanation of consciousness and mind. He wrote Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind (1992) and A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination (with Giulio Tononi, 2000).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Edelman, Gerald Maurice

 

Born July 1, 1929, in New York. American biochemist. Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the New York Academy of Sciences.

Edelman graduated from Ursinus College in 1950, and he received his M.D. in 1954. In 1957 he joined the staff of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, and he became a professor there in 1966. Edelman’s research has dealt mainly with the primary and tertiary structure of proteins, especially antibodies (immunoglobulins), and with the structure of the cell surface. He applied new methods for the fractionation of antibodies and cells, and he developed a method of fluorescence spectroscopy for proteins. Edelman discovered that the gamma globulin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains.

Together with R. R. Porter, Edelman was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1972.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.