Edict of Nantes


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Nantes, Edict of,

1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants (see HuguenotsHuguenots
, French Protestants, followers of John Calvin. The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates. Origins

Prior to Calvin's publication in 1536 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion,
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). These included full liberty of conscience and private worship; liberty of public worship wherever it had previously been granted and its extension to numerous other localities and to estates of Protestant nobles; full civil rights including the right to hold public office; royal subsidies for Protestant schools; special courts, composed of Roman Catholic and Protestant judges, to judge cases involving Protestants; retention of the organization of the Protestant church in France; and Protestant control of some 200 cities then held by the Huguenots, including such strongholds as La Rochelle (see Rochelle, LaRochelle, La
, city (1990 pop. 73,744), capital of Charente-Maritime dept., W France, on the Bay of Biscay. Industries include naval, aircraft, and automobile construction. La Rochelle is the principal French fishing port on the Atlantic coast. Chartered in the 12th cent.
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), with the king contributing to the maintenance of their garrisons and fortifications. The last condition, originally devised for an eight-year period but subsequently renewed, was to serve as guarantee to the Huguenots that their other rights would be respected; however, it gave French Protestantism a virtual state within a state and was incompatible with the centralizing policies of cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin and of Louis XIV. The fall (1628) of La Rochelle to Richelieu's army and the Peace of Alais (1629) marked the end of Huguenot political privileges. After 1665, Louis XIV was persuaded by his Roman Catholic advisers to embark on a policy of persecuting the Protestants. By a series of edicts that narrowly interpreted the Edict of Nantes, he reduced it to a scrap of paper. Finally, in 1685, he declared that the majority of Protestants had been converted to Catholicism and that the edict of 1598, having thus become superfluous, was revoked. No French Protestants were allowed to leave the country; those who openly remained Protestants were promised the right of private worship and freedom from molestation, but the promise was not kept. Thousands fled abroad to escape the system of dragonnadesdragonnades
or dragonades
, name given to a form of persecution of French Protestants, or Huguenots, before and after the revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes (see Nantes, Edict of) by Louis XIV.
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, and several provinces were virtually depopulated. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes weakened the French economy by driving out a highly skilled and industrious segment of the nation, and its ruthless application increased the detestation in which England and the Protestant German states held the French king. Its object—to make France a Catholic state—was fulfilled on paper only, for many secretly remained faithful to Protestantism, while the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church suffered as a result of Louis's intolerance.

Bibliography

See W. J. Stankiewicz, Politics and Religion in Seventeenth Century France (1960).

Nantes, Edict of

 

an edict signed by the French king Henry IV in Nantes in April 1598; it put an end to the religious wars in France.

By the terms of the Edict of Nantes, Catholicism remained the ruling religion, but the Huguenots gained the freedom to profess their faith and to conduct religious services in the cities (except Paris and several others), in their castles, and in a number of rural communities. The Huguenots were given the right to hold judicial, administrative, and military office. Special courts, half of which were staffed with Huguenots, were created in the parliaments of Paris, Toulouse, Bordeaux, and Grenoble to hear cases involving Huguenots. Huguenots were allowed to convoke political conferences and synods. According to secret supplemental articles of the Edict of Nantes, the Huguenots received 100 fortresses with garrisons; the chief fortresses were Montpellier, Montauban, and La Rochelle. They also gained the right to have an army and other privileges.

The Edict of Nantes encountered harsh opposition from the pope, the Catholic clergy, and the parliaments. The last were slow to register it; for example, the Rouen Parliament did so only in 1610. After the war with the Huguenots of 1621–29, the secret articles of the Edict of Nantes were voided by the Peace of Alais (1629). In 1685, Louis XIV finally revoked the Edict of Nantes.

DOCUMENTS

Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises, par Isambert, vol. 15.Paris, 1829.

Nantes, Edict of

granted Protestants same rights as Catholics in France (1598). [Fr. Hist.: EB, VII: 184]
References in periodicals archive ?
The consequences of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes constitute the final section.
Locke, for example, wrote Letter while in self-imposed exile in Holland where his earlier ideas on toleration were influenced by the Dutch Remonstrants and Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Vemon traces the evolution of Locke's ideas from his earlier Essay on Toleration (1667) and Two Tracts on Government (1660 and 1662) in which the philosophe actually supported a magistrate's authority "to impose conformity in religion" to the refining of his better-known liberal ideas regarding religious toleration that were refined in his epistolary debates with Proast (xiii).
In the final years of the century there were many political twists and turns from which authors attempted to divine the likelihood of a sudden apocalypse or the millennium's imminence: the succession of James II; Monmouth's rebellion and of course the Glorious Revolution and even for some far sighted observers, the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. It is clear, Johnston points out, that rather than appearing as a strange anachronism stranded half a century out of its proper time, Mason's commune at Stony Stratford was emblematic of a continuing tradition of the politics and religious vicissitudes of the later seventeenth century for apocalyptic interpretation.
He says that the Edict of Nantes was "against the Huguenots" (107), while it was actually a decree of toleration.
After many hardships and persecutions, French Protestants--Huguenots--finally left France in their thousands following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, to seek religious freedom.
Another lime in St-Maurice-en-Valgaudemar (Hautes-Alpes) celebrated the promulgation of the Edict of Nantes, which tolerated Protestants, and one in Saint-Martin-en-Vercors (Drome) was planted by Sully to celebrate the industrial success of the village.
With the Edict of Nantes (1598) effectively ending the Wars of Religion, Catholic reformist groups, such as the Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement, and local elites believed enfermement to be the solution to the social, moral and religious problems assailing the kingdom.
Helene Merlin-Kajman's persuasive presentation of tragedy as illicit commemoration of wars supposedly forgotten after the Edict of Nantes argues that the growing divergence between public and private beliefs under absolutism finds its expression in the theatre.
The historical background is generally strong, and there is some interesting information on the political and social context of Descartes' family at the beginning of the book (a family-tree is also provided), but a clearer explanation of the structure of the seventeenth-century French polity would have been useful; and he gives the wrong impression about the French promulgation of the Council of Trent (71), which was in fact tempered by the Edict of Nantes.
One recurrent preoccupation found in this third group of essays is the evolution of the paraphrases of psalms, in the context of the Reformation, from the beginning of the sixteenth century, with Clement Marot, to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (Isabelle Garnier-Mathez, Eliane Engelhard, Julien Goeury, Ines Kirschleger).
The situation changed markedly in 1598, however, as the Edict of Nantes ushered in a period of religious co-existence.
Van Ruymbeke begins with three chapters on the increased persecution of Huguenots leading up to revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1585, the flight of many to England, and the eventual decision by some to move to South Carolina.