Edmund Spenser


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Spenser, Edmund,

1552?–1599, English poet, b. London. He was the friend of men eminent in literature and at court, including Gabriel Harvey, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Robert Sidney, earl of Leicester. After serving as secretary to the Bishop of Rochester, Spenser was appointed in 1580 secretary to Lord Grey, lord deputy of Ireland. Afterward Spenser lived in Ireland, holding minor civil offices and receiving the lands and castle of Kilcolman, Co. Cork. In 1589, under Raleigh's sponsorship, Spenser went to London, where he apparently sought court preferment and publication of the first three books of The Faerie Queene. After the Tyrone rebellion of 1598, in which Kilcolman Castle was burned, he returned to London, where he died in 1599. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Recognized by his contemporaries as the foremost poet of his time, Spenser was not only a master of meter and language but a profound moral poet as well. Patterning his literary career after that of Vergil, Spenser first published 12 pastoral eclogues of The Shepheardes Calender (1579), which treat the shepherd as rustic priest and poet. His Complaints and Daphnaida, the latter an elegy on Douglas Howard, both appeared in 1591. In 1595 Colin Clouts Come Home Againe, a pastoral allegory dealing with Spenser's first London journey and the vices inherent in court life, and Astrophel, an elegy on Sir Philip Sidney, were published. In the same year Amoretti, Spenser's sonnet sequence commemorating his courtship of Elizabeth Boyle, and Epithalamion, a beautiful and complex wedding poem in honor of his marriage in 1594, were also published. Fowre Hymnes, which explains Spenser's Platonic and Christian views of love and beauty, and Prothalamion appeared in 1596. Also in 1596 the first six books of The Faerie Queene, Spenser's unfinished masterpiece, appeared. Although the poem is an epic, his method was to treat the moral virtues allegorically. The excellence of The Faerie Queene lies in the complexity and depth of Spenser's moral vision and in the Spenserian stanza (nine lines, eight of iambic pentameter followed by one of iambic hexameter, rhyming ababbcbcc), which Spenser invented for his masterpiece. Spenser's only extended prose work, A View of the Present State of Ireland, was first printed in 1633.

Bibliography

See variorum edition of his works (ed. by E. Greenlaw et al., 1932–49), the three-volume edition of the poetical works (J. C. Smith and E. de Selincourt, 1909–10), and the four-volume edition of the minor works (W. L. Renwick, 1928–34). See biographies by A. C. Judson (1945) and A. Hadfield (2012); studies by W. Nelson (1963), W. L. Renwick (1925, repr. 1965), D. Cheney (1966), P. Bayley (1971), A. L. DeNeef (1983), and H. Berger, Jr. (1988); C. S. Lewis, The Allegory of Love (1936, repr. 1958) and F. Kermode, Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne (1971).

Spenser, Edmund

 

Born circa 1552, in London; died there Jan. 13 or 16,1599. English poet.

Spenser studied at Cambridge University, where he received a master’s degree. His Shepherds’ Calendar (1579) is a pastoral consisting of 12 eclogues, each associated with a different month. Spenser drew on traditional allegory for purposes of satire in Colin Clout’s Come Home Again (1591; published 1595) and in the fable Mother Hubberd’s Tale (1591). He also wrote lyric hymns (1596) and the cycle of lyric sonnets Amoretti (1591–95).

Spenser’s greatest work is the unfinished allegorical narrative poem The Faerie Queene (1590–96), which is permeated by humanist aspirations. The work made use of the Arthurian legends and developed the traditions of the classical epic and of the narrative poems of the Italian Renaissance.

Spenser’s allegories deal with court life and politics. The characters in his magic world have the traits of living people; in its own way, his peotry is realistic. He contributed the Spenserian stanza to English versification.

WORKS

Works, vols. 1–8. Baltimore, Md., 1932–47.
In Russian translation:
In Khrestomatiia po zapadnoevropeiskoi literature: Epokha Vozrozhdeniia, 3rd ed. Compiled by B. I. Purishev. Moscow, 1947.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 1, fasc. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1943.
Renwick, W. L. Edmund Spenser. London [1964].
Spenser: The Critical Heritage. Edited by R. M. Cummings. London [1971].
Atkinson, D. F. Edmund Spenser: A Bibliographical Supplement. New York, 1967.

M. A. NERSESOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
A cursory view of David Gardiner's "Befitting Emblems of Adversity": A Modern Irish View of Edmund Spenser from W.
This persona was for centuries taken uncritically as the historical Edmund Spenser, but recent scholars have come to recognize the narrator-figure as just one of many poetic tools artfully employed by Spenser.
The sample involves mainly North African, especially Moroccan literature seen against a background illustrated by ah obscure allegorical figure, a certain "Saracen knight" Edmund Spenser named "Sansjoy.
Perhaps its reputation as a minor and occasional work, celebrating the poet's second marriage in 1595, has contributed to this relative critical neglect; apart from brief commentaries by major Spenserians such as Richard Rambuss or Gary Waller (Rambuss 1993: 64-57 and 100-01, Waller 1994: 132-39), it has been left relatively untouched by the theoretical revision of Spenser's work in the last decade (see, most notably, Andrew Hadfield's critical reader, Edmund Spenser, 1997, which manages to ignore it completely).
One of the central arguments of the book relates to the poet and planter Edmund Spenser.
At roughly the same time, English poet Edmund Spenser wrote of "the stings of aspes that kill with smart.
As his title implies, Cheney proposes that Marlowe's art is best understood as a response to the work of Marlowe's chosen classical literary forebear, Ovid, and his greatest contemporary rival, Edmund Spenser.
21), not to read The Faerie Queene, for example, as an allegory of, rather than an allegory by, Edmund Spenser (p.
For Du Bellay's original (with Spenser's translation on the facing page) see Joachim du Bellay, Antiquitez de Rome translated by Edmund Spenser as Ruines of Rome, ed.
Judson, The Life of Edmund Spenser, in the Works of Edmund Spenser: A Variourum Edition, 10 vols.
Londoner Edmund Spenser wrote "The Faerie Queen" while living in Ireland in the late 1500s; contemporary American writer Thomas Flanagan is known for historical novels of Ireland, including "The Tenants of Time" and "The End of the Hunt.