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Edom (ēˈdŏm), Idumaea, or Idumea (both: īdyo͞omēˈə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to Esau, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. Herod the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
mid-disk: Aeria (sw), Argyre (sw), Candor-Ophir (sw), Chryse (sw), Edom (sw), Olympus Mons orographic (sw), Thymiamata.
However, when the messiah comes, there will be a reckoning against Edom (the Christian church) and Ishmael (Islam), who will clash in a titanic war.
(1.) Chaim Herzog and Mordechai Gichon, in their book Battles of the Bible suggest that the wrath was the product of "Edomite recriminations" but since Chanan Brichto showed that there was no king in Edom at the time, the Edomite king's involvement in the war should be regarded as a fiction.
Whenever these regions are nearly centered on the disk, the Earth-Sun geometry is favorable for catching a mirror-like glint of sunlight reflecting off patches of frost or ice on the Martian surface, like those seen two years ago at Edom Promontorium (S&T: September 2001, page 112).
Montgomerie's wayward drive at the 16th hole of his second round struck Jonathan Edom on the head, knocking him unconscious.
And although Johnson goes on to inform his readers that after bottling up the Philistines in a narrow coastal strip, King David "then moved east, south and north, establishing his authority over Ammon, Moab, Edom, Aram-Zobar and even Aram-Damascus in the far north-east," archaeologists believe that David was not a mighty potentate whose power was felt from the Nile to the Euphrates but rather a freebooter who carved out what was at most a small duchy in the southern highlands around Jerusalem and Hebron.
Edom, the canny antiques dealer who made several appearances in The New Yorker before William Shawn grew tired of the series and asked that it be suspended.
To the east is the Edom mountain range whose tallest peak reaches 1,600 metres above sea level.
`Pinon' was one of the tribes of Edom listed in Genesis and `Punon' was on the itinerary of the Israelites from Egypt on their way to the promised land.
Sophronius presents the occupation of Jerusalem as an attack on Rome, using the ancient term Edom.
This is a literary study of the treatment of Edom in the Old Testament writings, rather than an historical investigation of the Edomite people.