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Edom (ēˈdŏm), Idumaea, or Idumea (both: īdyo͞omēˈə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to Esau, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. Herod the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter 4 shows how Esau (the putative ancestor of the Edomites) may also be read in a negative fashion, but enough positive points about his character emerge from the Genesis narrative that no simple conclusion one way or another can be drawn.
The site was reasonably designated by the excavator as an Edomite shrine to Qos.
Again, to quote Stassen and Gushee, "...the promise to possess the land includes the offspring of Isaac, and the offspring of Isaac includes Esau, with his five Edomite sons and their offspring." These other descendants, and not just the Israelites, received land from God too.
It was only under protection of that same Roman power that Edomite and Arabic clans around the neighborhood began to emerge little by little from the condition of continual wars and crude barbarism.
The site, its study, the use of space in the site and its buildings, the pottery, seal material, a 7th-century BC Edomite ostracon, the small finds, Iron Age landscape, and later Nabataean structures are among the topics.
Umm Al Biyara, the highest mountain in Petra, southern Jordan, was the first Iron Age Edomite site to be extensively excavated.
The presence of an Edomite king in II Kings 3 shows the chapter (see above) to be basically unhistorical, although some individual verses are doubtlessly correct.
(27) Robert Greer Cohn suggests the poem is also 'a comment on the birth pains of Herodiade', especially since Herodiade 'is a princess of Edomite (Idumean) ancestry': Toward the Poems of Mallarme (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965), p.
Does the scorn of the maligned Mariam for her sister-in-law Salome, whom she calls "base and hungry Edomite" (3.2.94), justify Mariam's execution?
He would shortly drive out the Byzantine/Roman/"Edomite" occupiers of Palestine, which, Crone and Cook maintain, was liberated, contra later traditions, already in Muhammad's time.
Hadad the Edomite made no idols until he went to Egypt.