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(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Amalekites who lived south and east of ancient Palestine -- the Promised Land in the Hebrew Bible -- mistreated, cursed, attacked and refused safe passage to the Israelites who trekked to Palestine.
The last Hebrew word in the poem, "the rock" may be a reference to Petra, the Edomite city, called "the rock" in II Kings 14:7.
Each book contains a historical and cultural overview, descriptions of neighboring peoples (Phoenicians, Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, etc.
There were Egyptians who were born and reared among the Israelites and Edomites, who were descendants of Esau, the brother of Jacob.
He doesn't elaborate, but it seems clear that this "remembering" is equivalent to vengeance and destruction: for God to "remember" the Edomites is for him to cast their actions back on their own heads.
Like the Edomites, Adam and Eve were a race rejected from, in their case, Eden, and they likewise fought the heavens by defying God's prohibition.
There, John's designs to undermine Matthias within the city and concurrently to betray the city to the Edomites are revealed.
Then the Edomites, "a perennial enemy of Judah from the southeast, took advantage of the prostration of the city both to jeer and to loot (Obad.
Although this short book is elegantin s tyle, it prophesies complete destruction of the Edomites.
Jews were described variously as purely Caucasian Semites, dark Egyptians, ruddy Edomites, black Cushites, mixed-blood Chaldaeans, and so on.
One such instance, according to legend, is when the Hebrews accessed it to slay 18,000 Edomites, the predecessors of the Nabataeans.
Like solitary David in his encounter with Goliath, this envisioned savior in the Isaiah passage is identified by ruddiness, albeit in this instance his coloration is the result of the "blood" of the Edomites "sprinkled" upon him and his "red apparel.