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(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Amalekites who lived south and east of ancient Palestine -- the Promised Land in the Hebrew Bible -- mistreated, cursed, attacked and refused safe passage to the Israelites who trekked to Palestine.
Edomites would enthusiastically embrace the new movement.
Interpretations reinforce the liminality of ethnic groups like the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, and Samaritans effected initially through stereotypical representation that establishes the presumed superiority of "Israel?
Edom and the Edomites, JSOT serie suplementaria 77, Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.
7 Remember, O LORD, what the Edomites did on the day Jerusalem fell.
At that time the most significant culture in the land was without a doubt Jewish, but in the region, and sometimes even in the same cities, lived people of other cultures such as Hellenists, Samaritans, Edomites, Phoenicians and others.
As a result, the army attacking Bethulia includes any number of groups--Persians, Parthians, Medes, Arabs, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Elimites, Egyptians, and Ethiopians--all conquered and absorbed by the ambitious and imperialistic Nebuchadnezzar and his viceroy Holophernes.
These anonymous authors used etiological narratives to explain to their contemporaries, for example, why different groups of Semites spoke different languages (Tower of Babel), to explain why the Israelites (fathered by Jacob) and the Edomites (fathered by Esau) were closely related by often at war with each other, to explain why Rahab's (the prostitute who sheltered Joshua and his men when they spied on Jericho) relatives (foreigners) stilled lived in Canaan, and why the tribe of Jacob's eldest son, Reuben, produced no King (see Genesis 49:3-4).
Cast Your mind back, Adonai, to the day of Jerusalem, against the Edomites who were crying, "Raze, raze her to her foundations
Praetorius quickly drew the parallel between the Edomites who were "our brothers, who were with us in one baptism" and those in his own time who "want to be pillars of Christianity, the popes and false evangelicals, who persecute us for loving them, praying for them, admonishing and teaching them.
Each book contains a historical and cultural overview, descriptions of neighboring peoples (Phoenicians, Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, etc.
Israelites, Edomites, Moabites, Amonites and Arameans colonise 960-922 BC Reign of Solomon 722 BC Assyrians destroy Israel 612 BC Babylonians capture Nineveh, Assyrians capital 597-587 BC Jerusalem, Palestine and Jordan fall to Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar c300 BC Nabataeans establish kingdom in Petra and dominate the region for almost 400 years 333 BC Alexander the Great conquers Syria, Palestine and Egypt 323 BC Death of Alexander.