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Buchner, Eduard(ā`do͞oärt bo͞okh`nər), 1860–1917, German chemist. He taught at Berlin, Breslau, and, from 1911, at Würzburg. He discovered (1896) that alcoholic fermentation of sugars is caused by yeast enzymes and not by the yeast cells themselves. Zymase, part of the enzyme system causing fermentation, was discovered by him in 1903. For this work he received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Born May 20, 1860, in Munich; died Aug. 13, 1917, in Focşani, Rumania. German chemist; worked with A. Baeyer.
From 1893 to 1911, Buchner was a professor in Kiel, Berlin, Breslau (Wrocńaw), and Würzburg. He discovered pyrazole in 1889. In 1897, using compression, he obtained from yeast a juice that contains no living cells but is able to stimulate vigorous fermentation. In this same way a juice that stimulates lactic and acetic fermentation was later obtained from other organisms. These works showed that fermentation can take place without the participation of lower organisms. Buchner won the Nobel Prize in 1907.