Educational Psychology

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educational psychology

[‚ej·ə′kā·shən·əl sī‚kä·lə·jē]
(psychology)
A field of psychology that deals with the psychological aspects of teaching and formal learning processes.

Educational Psychology

 

a branch of psychology that studies growth and development during the learning process, as well as the psychological foundations of instruction and upbringing.

Educational psychology is closely related to general and child psychology and to pedagogy. Its most typical research method is the educational “transformation experiment” method—the study of the psychological development of children, adolescents, and young men and women during and after experimental teaching. The goal of such research is to determine from the great number of factors simultaneously affecting human development during the learning process those factors that have decisively influenced the aspects of personality under study.

Educational psychology became an independent branch of psychology at the turn of the 20th century; between 1906 and 1916, five all-Russian congresses on problems of educational psychology were held. However, attempts to apply psychological data to teaching had been made far earlier. Many outstanding pedagogues, including J. A. Comenius, J. Locke, J.-J. Rousseau, and J. H. Pestalozzi, had maintained that knowledge of a child’s inner life was essential. K. D. Ushinskii believed that “if pedagogy wants to educate man in every way, it must first know him in every way” (Soch., vol. 8, 1950, p. 23). The demands made on psychology by pedagogical theory and practice and by the development of the science of psychology itself caused educational psychology to become an independent branch of psychology.

Educational psychology comprises two branches: the psychology of upbringing and the psychology of instruction. The former investigates the psychological foundations of personality formation: world view, purposefulness, and inner stability, and moral and psychological qualities, feelings, and habits. It emphasizes an individual approach to children and young people, dealing with their inner world and the development of their individual capabilities. The psychology of upbringing also establishes the psychological prerequisites for the pedagogical organization of children’s and young people’s associations. A critical problem studied by the psychology of upbringing is that of the interrelationship of consciousness and behavior; the discipline seeks to clarify the conditions ensuring their unity.

The psychology of learning investigates the learning process in relation to school subjects and to skills and habits in school and at work. It also studies the role of work experience as a source of knowledge, the application of such knowledge, the influence of instruction on the development of the child’s thought processes, the transition from knowledge to conviction, and the formation of a scientific world view.

Research in educational psychology is of great value in devising specific teaching methods and in formulating curricula and writing textbooks. Such research is also of aid in establishing scientifically based educational systems in schools, in applying teaching methods, and in developing psychological theory itself.

REFERENCES

James, W. Besedy s uchiteliami o psikhologii. Petrograd, 1919. (Translated from English.)
Ushinskii, K. D. “Chelovek kak predmet vospitaniia.” In Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Slavina, L. S. Individual’nyi podkhod k neuspevaiushchim i nedistsiplinirovannym uchenikam. Moscow, 1958.
Blonskii, P. P. Izbrannye pedagogicheskie proizvedeniia. Moscow, 1961.
Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i eeformirovanie v detskom vozraste. Moscow, 1968.
Psikhologicheskie problemy neuspevaemosti shkol’nikov. Edited by N. A. Menchinskaia. Moscow, 1971.
Davydov, V. V. Vidy obobshcheniia v obuchenii. Moscow, 1972.
Krutetskii, V. A. Osnovy pedagogicheskoi psikhologii. Moscow, 1972.
Vozrastnaia i pedagogicheskaia psikhologiia. Edited by A. V. Petrovskii. Moscow, 1973. Chapters 7–9.

L. I. BOZHOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
My suggestion is to go to the Education Ministry and get a list of registered educational psychologists.
For each dimension, the author suggests a set of actions that can be developed by educational psychologists. In the first dimension, for instance, participation in the preparation and review of the Institutional Development Plan was established; the continuing education process for teachers, supervisors and employees, as well as the process of institutional self-evaluation.
The study is contextual bound--linked to a certain time, space and value context (Botes, 1991:7)--in the sense that the educational psychologist used art as projection medium and, through a process of facilitative interaction, were able to identify and address unresolved childhood trauma experienced by the art students.
Virji, "A Sense of History," Educational Psychologist 29 (1994): 79-88; Stuart Greene, "The Problems of Learning to Think Like a Historian: Writing History in the Culture of the Classroom," Educational Psychologist 29 (1994): 89-96.
The Bakers consulted an educational psychologist, who confirmed the family's concerns: If Brendan remained unchallenged, he would shut down and lose interest in learning altogether.
The author, an educational psychologist, attempts to answer the question that confronts so many art educators: Why does artistic activity, so vital and universal for young children, diminish drastically with the passing years?
A 1986 survey by Kaoru Yamamoto, PhD, an educational psychologist at the University of Colorado, found the "top 20" troubles of children.
I refrain from bothering you with my inferences about her functioning "educational psychologist."
The test is not suitable for children under 10 and a half, who are admitted to Mensa on the evidence of an educational psychologist.
The school doctor could refer and liaise with the GP, hospital, or educational psychologist and continue to monitor the child's progress.
Educational psychologist Dr Marlynne Grant, who tracked a class of pupils from their first day at school, also found they were 21 months ahead in spelling by Year 2.

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