Educational Psychology

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educational psychology

[‚ej·ə′kā·shən·əl sī‚kä·lə·jē]
(psychology)
A field of psychology that deals with the psychological aspects of teaching and formal learning processes.

Educational Psychology

 

a branch of psychology that studies growth and development during the learning process, as well as the psychological foundations of instruction and upbringing.

Educational psychology is closely related to general and child psychology and to pedagogy. Its most typical research method is the educational “transformation experiment” method—the study of the psychological development of children, adolescents, and young men and women during and after experimental teaching. The goal of such research is to determine from the great number of factors simultaneously affecting human development during the learning process those factors that have decisively influenced the aspects of personality under study.

Educational psychology became an independent branch of psychology at the turn of the 20th century; between 1906 and 1916, five all-Russian congresses on problems of educational psychology were held. However, attempts to apply psychological data to teaching had been made far earlier. Many outstanding pedagogues, including J. A. Comenius, J. Locke, J.-J. Rousseau, and J. H. Pestalozzi, had maintained that knowledge of a child’s inner life was essential. K. D. Ushinskii believed that “if pedagogy wants to educate man in every way, it must first know him in every way” (Soch., vol. 8, 1950, p. 23). The demands made on psychology by pedagogical theory and practice and by the development of the science of psychology itself caused educational psychology to become an independent branch of psychology.

Educational psychology comprises two branches: the psychology of upbringing and the psychology of instruction. The former investigates the psychological foundations of personality formation: world view, purposefulness, and inner stability, and moral and psychological qualities, feelings, and habits. It emphasizes an individual approach to children and young people, dealing with their inner world and the development of their individual capabilities. The psychology of upbringing also establishes the psychological prerequisites for the pedagogical organization of children’s and young people’s associations. A critical problem studied by the psychology of upbringing is that of the interrelationship of consciousness and behavior; the discipline seeks to clarify the conditions ensuring their unity.

The psychology of learning investigates the learning process in relation to school subjects and to skills and habits in school and at work. It also studies the role of work experience as a source of knowledge, the application of such knowledge, the influence of instruction on the development of the child’s thought processes, the transition from knowledge to conviction, and the formation of a scientific world view.

Research in educational psychology is of great value in devising specific teaching methods and in formulating curricula and writing textbooks. Such research is also of aid in establishing scientifically based educational systems in schools, in applying teaching methods, and in developing psychological theory itself.

REFERENCES

James, W. Besedy s uchiteliami o psikhologii. Petrograd, 1919. (Translated from English.)
Ushinskii, K. D. “Chelovek kak predmet vospitaniia.” In Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Slavina, L. S. Individual’nyi podkhod k neuspevaiushchim i nedistsiplinirovannym uchenikam. Moscow, 1958.
Blonskii, P. P. Izbrannye pedagogicheskie proizvedeniia. Moscow, 1961.
Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i eeformirovanie v detskom vozraste. Moscow, 1968.
Psikhologicheskie problemy neuspevaemosti shkol’nikov. Edited by N. A. Menchinskaia. Moscow, 1971.
Davydov, V. V. Vidy obobshcheniia v obuchenii. Moscow, 1972.
Krutetskii, V. A. Osnovy pedagogicheskoi psikhologii. Moscow, 1972.
Vozrastnaia i pedagogicheskaia psikhologiia. Edited by A. V. Petrovskii. Moscow, 1973. Chapters 7–9.

L. I. BOZHOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
1996), "The Past, Present, and Future of Knowledge Research: A Reexamination of the Role of Knowledge in Learning and Instruction," Educational Psychologist 31: 89-92.
Regarding the Number of Professionals within the Services, in four SPS there is only one educational psychologist to answer for all actions and demands; in two services, the team consists of two or three professionals; and finally, because of the linking with psychology courses, two services rely on the cooperation of teachers who play the role of coordinators, psychologists who work a few hours a week and psychology students in training.
The two role players, the educational psychologist and the young adult, are both presented as a whole person.
Booth, "Cognition in History: A British Perspective," Educational Psychologist 29 (1994): 61-69; quotes on p.
Educational psychologist Dr Marlynne Grant, who tracked a class of pupils from their first day at school, also found they were 21 months ahead in spelling by Year 2.
Educational psychologist, Dr Peter Congdon said that Sarabi's mental age is measured at 8 years and 9 months, which is more than twice his actual age, and that it is very unusual for a child to have this type of intelligence.
Cotugno is a clinical and educational psychologist with over 30 years of experience with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and he has written this workbook for school, clinic and general practitioners who need to employ peer-based and group-focused therapeutic interventions.
Educational psychologist Dr Liz Todd said many parents felt inadequate when it came to caring for their children.
Mary, an educational psychologist, said: "People forget that the Spanish Civil War was a precursor to World War II, and of course, so many Welshman went out to join the Brigades.
RE: THE recent claims about dyslexia, Professor Elliott, as an educational psychologist, should know that the first step when assessing dyslexia or not is to check the IQ of the child.
David Byron, a senior specialist educational psychologist for Hampshire County Council, studied the ten pupils at the centre along with 10 others being taught more traditional relaxation techniques.
It becomes real to everyone and then it's too hard to handle,'' says Charlotte Reznick, an educational psychologist and associate clinical professor at UCLA.

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