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in the broad sense, a person who implements upbringing; in a narrower sense, a person responsible for carrying out the educational functions at an educational institution.
In the educational institutions of prerevolutionary Russia, in addition to the regular teachers, educational functions were performed by class masters (in boys’ Gymnasiums} and mistresses (in girls’ Gymnasiums), officer-teachers (in cadet schools), and class supervisors. In the families of the privileged social strata the children’s education was carried out by educators in the homes—tutors, governesses, and nursery governesses.
In the USSR the staff duties of educators, whose rights and obligations have been defined by specific statutes, have been established for preschool institutions, children’s homes, boarding schools, schools and groups that operate in shifts with an extended day, educational institutions of the State Committee on Vocational and Technical Education of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Suvorov and Nakhimov schools, and work camps for juvenile delinquents. Educators are responsible for the training, education, health, and physical development of their pupils. They organize the pupils’ daily life and leisure time, conduct varied political and cultural-popular work, arrange help for those who have fallen behind in their studies, and so on. In their work educators rely on Pioneer and Komsomol organizations, children’s collectives, and bodies of children’s self-government.
In the general-education schools and the secondary specialized educational institutions, educational functions are carried out by all the teachers. Class directors are ap-pointed to organize and coordinate educational work in the fourth to tenth grades at schools, as well as at specialized secondary educational institutions.
Educators for preschool institutions are trained at pre-school pedagogical colleges, whereas those who will teach at educational institutions receive their training at pedagogical institutions of higher learning.