Edward the Black Prince

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Edward the Black Prince,

1330–76, eldest son of Edward IIIEdward III,
1312–77, king of England (1327–77), son of Edward II and Isabella. Early Life

He was made earl of Chester in 1320 and duke of Aquitaine in 1325 and accompanied his mother to France in 1325.
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 of England. He was created duke of Cornwall in 1337, the first duke to be created in England, and prince of Wales in 1343. Joining his father in the campaigns of the Hundred Years War, he established his reputation for valor at the battle of Crécy (1346). It was apparently the French who called him the Black Prince, perhaps because he wore black armor; the name was not recorded in England until the 16th cent. In 1355 the prince led an expedition into Aquitaine, and in 1356 he defeated and captured John II of France in the battle of PoitiersPoitiers
, city (1990 pop. 82,507), capital of Vienne dept., W central France, on the Clain River. The ancient capital of Poitou, it is now an industrial, agricultural, and communications center.
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. Edward became ruler of the newly created English principality of Aquitaine in 1363 and, with his wife Joan of KentJoan of Kent,
1328–85, English noblewoman; daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, youngest son of Edward I. She early gained wide note for her beauty and charm, though the appellation Fair Maid of Kent, by which she became known, was probably not contemporary.
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, maintained a brilliant court at Bordeaux. In 1367 he went to the support of Peter the CruelPeter the Cruel,
1334–69, Spanish king of Castile and León (1350–69), son and successor of Alfonso XI. His desertion of his wife, Blanche of Bourbon, for María Padilla and his favors to the Padilla family aroused the opposition of the nobles and led to
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 of Castile and temporarily restored him to his throne by the victory of Nájera. However, the expenses of the war compelled Edward to levy a tax in Aquitaine that was protested by his nobles and by Charles V of France on their behalf. War with Charles resulted, and the prince, though ill, directed the capture and burning of Limoges (1370) with needless massacre of the citizens. By 1372 his bad health forced him to resign his principalities, leaving his brother, John of GauntJohn of Gaunt
[Mid. Eng. Gaunt=Ghent, his birthplace], 1340–99, duke of Lancaster; fourth son of Edward III of England. He married (1359) Blanche, heiress of Lancaster, and through her became earl (1361) and duke (1362) of Lancaster.
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, to attempt the impossible task of holding them for England. The aging Edward III had relaxed his hold on the government, and the Black Prince, aware that he would not live to succeed his father, tried to strengthen the hand of the clerical party against John of Gaunt so that the accession of his son (later Richard II) would be assured. To that end he supported (and possibly directed) the proceedings of the so-called Good Parliament of 1376, which, among other things, impeached two followers of John of Gaunt and removed Alice Perrers, the king's mistress, from court. The Black Prince died shortly thereafter.

Edward (The Black Prince)


Born June 15, 1330, in Woodstock; died June 8,1376, in London. Eldest son of the English king Edward III; prince of Wales. Nicknamed the Black Prince probably because of his black armor.

Edward was one of the principal English military commanders in the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War of 1337–1453. He gained particular renown as a result of English victories at the battle of Crécy in 1346 and the battle of Poitiers in 1356. In 1362 he became ruler of the French province of Aquitaine, which had been conquered by the English. The levying of taxes and acts of plunder and violence by English troops in the province gave rise to determined resistance on the part of the local population, and Edward was compelled to return to England in 1371.

References in periodicals archive ?
1356: The English, led by Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War.
1330: Edward, the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, was born at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
1376: Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III |of England, died.
In 1370 the city was sacked by Edward, the Black Prince, who was said to have massacred 3,000 residents, although it is now thought that figure was exaggerated and a more likely number was 300.
THE Duchy of Cornwall was created by King Edward III in 1337 to support his eldest son Edward, the Black Prince.
On 24 May 1357, the son of Edward III, Edward, the Black Prince - so called because of his black armour - returned with a most important prisoner: the King of France.
793: Viking raiders sack the abbey of Lindisfarne in England 1376: Edward, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, died.
Poitiers, he affirms, was the most significant military achievement of Edward, the Black Prince.
1356: The English, led by Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War, thanks to the devastating use of Welsh and English longbow archers.
A market has existed in Caernarfon since it was established through statute by Edward, the Black Prince, who was created Prince of Wales in 1343.
1337: Edward, The Black Prince, was the first man to be created a Duke and the Duchy of Cornwall was created.
1337 - Edward, The Black Prince, was the first man to be made a Duke, and the Duchy of Cornwall was created1649 - - Oliver Cromwell abolished the office of King and declared England a Commonwealth1776 - British troops were forced by George Washington t o evacuate Boston1845 - Elastic bands were patented by Stephen Perry1921 - The first birth control clinic was set up in London by Dr Marie Stopes Rudolf Nureyev1938 the Russian ballet dancer who defected t o the West, was born1978 - The oil tanker Amoco Cadiz ran aground on the coast of Brittany, broke in half and spilled 220,000 tons of crude oil1983 - Michael Dickinson, 33, achieved a unique record as trainer of the first five horses home in the Cheltenham Gold Cup.