Edward IV


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Related to Edward IV: Edward III, Edward VI, Elizabeth Woodville

Edward IV,

1442–83, king of England (1461–70, 1471–83), son of Richard, duke of YorkYork, Richard, duke of,
1411–60, English nobleman, claimant to the throne. He was descended from Edward III through his father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, grandson of that king, and also through his mother, Anne Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence,
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. He succeeded to the leadership of the Yorkist party (see Roses, Wars of theRoses, Wars of the,
traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).

About the middle of the 15th cent.
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) after the death of his father in Wakefield in 1460. Edward defeated the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross in 1461, entered London shortly thereafter, and was proclaimed king. Later in the year he won another victory over the Lancastrians at Towton Field, after which the deposed Henry VIHenry VI,
1421–71, king of England (1422–61, 1470–71). Reign
Early Years

The only son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, he became king of England when he was not yet nine months old.
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 fled the country. Edward's secret marriage (1464) to Elizabeth WoodvilleWoodville, Elizabeth,
1437–92, queen consort of Edward IV of England. She was the daughter of Richard Woodville (later the 1st Earl Rivers). Her first husband, Sir John Grey, was killed fighting on the Lancastrian side at the battle of St.
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 and subsequent favoritism to his wife's family angered his cousin, the able and ambitious Richard Neville, earl of WarwickWarwick, Richard Neville, earl of
, 1428–71, English nobleman, called the Kingmaker. Through his grandfather, Ralph Neville, 1st earl of Westmorland, he had connections with the house of Lancaster; he was also the nephew of Cecily Neville, wife of Richard, duke of York.
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. At the same time severe reprisals taken by Edward's constable, John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, against the Lancastrian party alienated many nobles. Warwick made a marriage alliance between his daughter and Edward's rebellious brother, George, duke of Clarence, and openly revolted in 1469. Although Warwick defeated Edward's forces at Edgecote, the king soon regained his strength, and Warwick fled (1470) to France. There he formed an alliance with Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI. He returned to England with an army, and Edward, who lacked the forces to fight, fled to Holland. Warwick then restored Henry VI to the throne. Edward, however, gathered an army and returned in 1471 to defeat and kill Warwick at Barnet and rout the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. In the latter battle Margaret was captured and her son, Edward, prince of Wales, killed. After the death of Henry VI in the Tower of London later in the year, Edward's position was secure. The remainder of his reign was a peaceful one. Edward invaded France in 1475 but allowed himself to be bought off without actual fighting. He reorganized the revenues of the crown lands (now greatly expanded by the addition of the Yorkist estates) and promoted trade, benefiting from the increased customs revenues. His resulting wealth allowed him to be largely independent of Parliament, and he developed many of the absolutist precedents inherited and utilized by the Tudor monarchs.

Bibliography

See C. L. Scofield, The Life and Reign of Edward IV (2 vol., 1923; repr. 1967); E. F. Jacob, The Fifteenth Century (1961); C. Ross, Edward IV (1974).

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Edward IV

1442--83, king of England (1461--70; 1471--83); son of Richard, duke of York. He defeated Henry VI in the Wars of the Roses and became king (1461). In 1470 Henry was restored to the throne, but Edward recovered the crown by his victory at Tewkesbury
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Queen Elizabeth's lineage can be readily traced back over 17 generations to Edward IV, who lived between April 28, 1442 and 1483.
2 PLAYED BY ESSIE DAVIS Once Queen of England, the death of her husband King Edward IV may have diminished her position, but it has done little to dent her ambition to put a Yorkist back on the throne.
Charles the Bold was ruler of Burgundy in France and on good terms with Edward IV. The two rulers agreed that the Burgundian coins could be legal tender in England.
Charles the Bold was ruler of Burgundy in France and on good terms with Edward IV. The rulers agreed that the Burgundian coins could be legal tender in England.
William Hastings was one of the most wealthy and powerful men in England and served first Edward IV, and then his brother, Richard III.
(5) When we turn to the less studied plays of the 1590s, these contexts of commerce and neighbourhood are helpful; in examining A Warning and Edward IV as accounts of perambulation, this article reflects on the ways that the city's spaces could be experienced through movement as neighbourhoods.
also derives inspiration from Edward IV. Edward's marriage and Robb's love life are said to be the cause of difficulties for both of them.
Edward IV's death in 1483 sparked new tensions when he left a child heir likely to be dominated by his mother's Woodville relations.
After the Duke's death in 1460, he revised it further for Edward IV. This version, completed around 1464 or 1465, survives in twelve almost complete manuscripts and three fragments.
The Poles' mother, Margaret, the Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of the Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Richard III and the last living Plantagenet; Exeter's mother was a daughter of Edward IV.
He then carries on through Henry VI's formidable wife, Margaret of Anjou and Elizabeth Wood-ville, consort of Edward IV before actually reaching Elizabeth of York.