Kendall, Edward Calvin

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Kendall, Edward Calvin,

1886–1972, American biochemist, b. South Norwalk, Conn., grad. Columbia (B.S., 1908; Ph.D., 1910). At St. Luke's Hospital, New York City, he did research on the thyroid gland (1911–14). He became (1914) head of the biochemistry section at the Mayo Clinic and was (1921–51) professor of physiological chemistry at the Mayo Foundation (affiliated with the Univ. of Minnesota). After 1952 he was professor of chemistry at Princeton. He shared with Philip S. HenchHench, Philip Showalter,
1896–1965, American physician, b. Pittsburgh, M.D. Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1920. Associated with the Mayo Foundation of the Univ. of Minnesota school of medicine after 1921, he was made head of the department of rheumatic diseases in 1926, began
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 and Tadeus ReichsteinReichstein, Tadeus
, 1897–1996, Swiss organic chemist, b. Vlotslavsk, Russia (now Włocławek, Poland), educated at the technical school in Zürich, where he also taught (1922–38) chemistry. He became (1938) head of the department of pharmacy at the Univ.
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 the 1950 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the hormones of the adrenal gland cortex. Kendall isolated and identified a series of compounds from the adrenal gland cortex, prepared cortisone by partial synthesis (with Merck & Co., Inc.), and with P. S. Hench, H. F. Polley, and C. H. Slocumb, investigated the effects of cortisone and of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on rheumatoid arthritis. Other contributions include the isolation of thyroxine (1914) and the crystallization of glutathione and establishment of its chemical structure.

Kendall, Edward Calvin

 

Born Mar. 8, 1886, in South Norwalk, Connecticut; died May 4, 1972, in Princeton. American biochemist. Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the New York Academy of Sciences.

Kendall graduated from Columbia University in 1908. From 1914 to 1950 he was head of the biochemistry section of the Mayo Clinic, and from 1921 to 1951 he was professor of physiological chemistry at the Mayo Foundation (University of Minnesota). In 1952 he became a professor of chemistry at Princeton University.

Kendall’s principal works were devoted to the hormones of the thyroid gland and the adrenal cortex. In 1915 he isolated thyroxine. Between 1936 and 1943 he discovered cortisone (Kendall’s Compound E) in the adrenal cortex and developed a method for obtaining the compound by partial chemical synthesis. With P. Hench, he determined the function of cortisone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. He obtained glutathione in crystalline form and determined its chemical structure.

Together with Hench and T. Reichstein, Kendall received a Nobel Prize in 1950.

WORKS

Thyroxine. New York, 1929.