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Yes, in the 20th century, Edward Thorndike won, and John Dewey lost.
That step--the departure from mentalism in animal psychology--was taken by Edward Thorndike.
Biographies of the first-generation advocates of IQ testing, professional practitioners like Louis Terman, Edward Thorndike, Henry Goddard, Robert Yerkes have been informative (Joncich, Sokal, Minton).
In fact, he was not the first: in the 1920s, Edward Thorndike suggested three aspects--abstract, mechanical and 'social' intelligence--and, in the 1960s, J P Guilford contended that intelligence consisted of 150 separate strands which were too complex to be covered by a few primary mental abilities or an IQ score.