Edward Burnett Tylor

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Tylor, Edward Burnett

 

Born Oct. 2, 1832, in London; died Jan. 2, 1917, in Wellington, Somersetshire. British ethnographic specialist in primitive cultures.

Tylor became keeper of the University Museum at Oxford in 1883. In 1896 he became the first professor of anthropology at Oxford University. His main works were Primitive Culture (vols. 1–2,1871; Russian translation, 1939) and Anthropology (1881; in Russian translation, Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization, 4th ed., 1924).

Along with H. Spencer, Tylor was one of the founders of the evolutionary school of cultural history and ethnography. In his treatment of the history of culture, Tylor was an idealist. He held that the ideas underlying technology and man’s economic and intellectual activities—ideas that have a life of their own—are embodied in the development of various kinds of tools, forms of art, rites, and beliefs. Tylor’s main field of interest was the history of spiritual culture, and particularly the development of religion. Through his wide-ranging studies of vestigial phenomena, Tylor revealed the historical roots of many customs and rituals that had been incomprehensible or that had acquired new meanings. His theory on the evolution of religion from animism was long dominant in science. Subsequently, however, the limitation of this theory became obvious, inasmuch as Tylor considered religion as merely a phenomenon of individual psychology and not as a fact of socially conscious existence.

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According to Edward Tylor, the founder of cultural anthropology, culture is "that complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, law, moral, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
First is Edward Tylor, the founding "father" of anthropology in England.
Some scientists such as Edward Tylor used the term \'culture\' to refer to a universal human capacity.
British and French versions derived from the work of Edward Tylor, which was only marginally better.
En effet, les ethnologues evolutionnistes, tels que Lewis Morgan, Edward Tylor et James Frazer, inscrivaient les cultures (qu'ils opposaient a ce qui se rapporte a l'inne) dans un continuum d'evolution coherent.
Recordemos que Ratzel tuvo como alumno a Franz Boas, quien a su vez tuvo como discipulo a Manuel Gamio, segun me hizo notar Leif Korsbaek, antropologo y traductor de otro interesante libro de viajes que tambien acaba de aparecer: Anahuac o Mexico y los mexicanos antiguos y modernos [1861] de Edward Tylor, el gran antropologo ingles [Mexico, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Juan Pablos, 2009].
Asi, al definir cultura como "el todo que abarca conocimiento, creencias, arte, moral, ley y costumbres", Edward Tylor (quien provenia de una familia de cuaqueros) clasifico el creer como uno de los elementos que conforman la "esfera intelectual" de toda sociedad (Tylor 1974, 1).
The author goes on to examine the theory of fertilization and of the social significance of date palms developed by Edward Tylor, as well as the role of the cherubims and winged genies and the utensils held by the latter such as cones and buckets, which were thought to have apotropaic virtues.
At the end of Squier's professional life, Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward Tylor, and Herbert Spencer began to publish social evolutionary treatises that greatly influenced the discipline, but Barnhart does not delve into connections between these studies and Squier's earlier research.
Stocking has indicated that although Codrington was in touch with "evolutionary anthropology" through his contacts with Edward Tylor, whose lectures he attended in Oxford in 1883, Codrington "never really became a convert to evolutionism.
Ya desde Edward Tylor que definia la cultura como <<Ese todo complejo .
Animism" was the term chosen by Sir Edward Tylor (1871) to identify the "primitive" belief that objects could have spiritual essences.