Edward the Black Prince
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Edward the Black Prince,1330–76, eldest son of Edward IIIEdward III,
1312–77, king of England (1327–77), son of Edward II and Isabella. Early Life
He was made earl of Chester in 1320 and duke of Aquitaine in 1325 and accompanied his mother to France in 1325.
..... Click the link for more information. of England. He was created duke of Cornwall in 1337, the first duke to be created in England, and prince of Wales in 1343. Joining his father in the campaigns of the Hundred Years War, he established his reputation for valor at the battle of Crécy (1346). It was apparently the French who called him the Black Prince, perhaps because he wore black armor; the name was not recorded in England until the 16th cent. In 1355 the prince led an expedition into Aquitaine, and in 1356 he defeated and captured John II of France in the battle of PoitiersPoitiers
, city (1990 pop. 82,507), capital of Vienne dept., W central France, on the Clain River. The ancient capital of Poitou, it is now an industrial, agricultural, and communications center.
..... Click the link for more information. . Edward became ruler of the newly created English principality of Aquitaine in 1363 and, with his wife Joan of KentJoan of Kent,
1328–85, English noblewoman; daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, youngest son of Edward I. She early gained wide note for her beauty and charm, though the appellation Fair Maid of Kent, by which she became known, was probably not contemporary.
..... Click the link for more information. , maintained a brilliant court at Bordeaux. In 1367 he went to the support of Peter the CruelPeter the Cruel,
1334–69, Spanish king of Castile and León (1350–69), son and successor of Alfonso XI. His desertion of his wife, Blanche of Bourbon, for María Padilla and his favors to the Padilla family aroused the opposition of the nobles and led to
..... Click the link for more information. of Castile and temporarily restored him to his throne by the victory of Nájera. However, the expenses of the war compelled Edward to levy a tax in Aquitaine that was protested by his nobles and by Charles V of France on their behalf. War with Charles resulted, and the prince, though ill, directed the capture and burning of Limoges (1370) with needless massacre of the citizens. By 1372 his bad health forced him to resign his principalities, leaving his brother, John of GauntJohn of Gaunt
[Mid. Eng. Gaunt=Ghent, his birthplace], 1340–99, duke of Lancaster; fourth son of Edward III of England. He married (1359) Blanche, heiress of Lancaster, and through her became earl (1361) and duke (1362) of Lancaster.
..... Click the link for more information. , to attempt the impossible task of holding them for England. The aging Edward III had relaxed his hold on the government, and the Black Prince, aware that he would not live to succeed his father, tried to strengthen the hand of the clerical party against John of Gaunt so that the accession of his son (later Richard II) would be assured. To that end he supported (and possibly directed) the proceedings of the so-called Good Parliament of 1376, which, among other things, impeached two followers of John of Gaunt and removed Alice Perrers, the king's mistress, from court. The Black Prince died shortly thereafter.
Edward (The Black Prince)
Born June 15, 1330, in Woodstock; died June 8,1376, in London. Eldest son of the English king Edward III; prince of Wales. Nicknamed the Black Prince probably because of his black armor.
Edward was one of the principal English military commanders in the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War of 1337–1453. He gained particular renown as a result of English victories at the battle of Crécy in 1346 and the battle of Poitiers in 1356. In 1362 he became ruler of the French province of Aquitaine, which had been conquered by the English. The levying of taxes and acts of plunder and violence by English troops in the province gave rise to determined resistance on the part of the local population, and Edward was compelled to return to England in 1371.