Hubble, Edwin Powell

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Hubble, Edwin Powell,

1889–1953, American astronomer, b. Marshfield, Mo. He did research (1914–17) at Yerkes Observatory, and joined (1919) the staff of Mt. Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Calif., of which he became director. Building on V. M. SlipherSlipher, Vesto Melvin
, 1875–1969, American astronomer, b. Mulberry, Ind. From 1901 he was at Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Ariz., where he served as director (1917–54).
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's discovery that galaxies had strong shifts to the red end of their spectra, Hubble used the stars known as Cepheid variablesCepheid variables
, class of variable stars that brighten and dim in an extremely regular fashion. The periods of the fluctuations (the time to complete one cycle from bright to dim and back to bright) last several days, although they range from 1 to 50 days.
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 in nearby galaxies to demonstrate that they lie far beyond the Milky Way. Because of an incorrect understanding of the Cepheids, this distance was vastly increased years later. He also suggested that the clusters of galaxies are distributed almost uniformly in all directions, although more recent studies show that clusters are combined into huge superclusters of galaxies: at this new level, however, the distribution appears to be even. He was the first to offer observational evidence to support the theory of the expanding universe, presenting his findings in what is now known as Hubble's lawHubble's law,
in astronomy, statement that the distances between galaxies (see galaxy) or clusters of galaxies are continuously increasing and that therefore the universe is expanding.
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. With Milton Humason, Hubble classified the different types of galaxies including irregular galaxies, three types of spirals and barred spirals, and elliptical galaxies. Included in his writings are A General Study of Diffuse Galactic Nebulas (1926), Extra-Galactic nebulas (1927), Spiral Nebula as a Stellar System (1929), The Realm of the Nebulas (1936), and The Observational Approach to Cosmology (1937).

Bibliography

See biography by G. E. Christianson (1995).

Hubble, Edwin Powell

 

Born Nov. 20, 1889, in Marsh-field, Mo.; died Sept. 28, 1953, in San Marino, Calif. American astronomer. Member of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington D.C. (from 1927).

From 1914 to 1917, Hubble worked at the Yerkes Observatory, and from 1919 at the Mount Wilson Observatory. His main works were devoted to the study of galaxies. In 1922, Hubble proposed a classification of observable nebulas into extragalactic nebulas (galaxies) and galactic nebulas (gas-dust nebulas). In the period 1924–26, he was able to detect on photographs the stars of which the galaxies closest to us consist and thus prove that they are stellar systems similar to our galaxy. In 1929, Hubble established the relationship between the red shift of galaxies and the distance to them (Hubble’s law).

WORKS

“A General Study of Diffuse Galactic Nebulae.” The Astrophysical Journal, 1922, vol. 56, no. 3.
The Observational Approach to Cosmology. Oxford, 1937.
The Realm of the Nebulae. New Haven-London, 1936.
References in periodicals archive ?
The astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that there were other galaxies in space.
It was however Edwin Hubble who determined not just that the Universe is expanding and that the galaxies are receding.
1 -- 3) Inside the landmark white dome on Mount Wilson's peak is a 100-ton treasure, right, with which Edwin Hubble discovered the existence of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and realized the universe was expanding.
The first of these galaxies was shown to exist when Edwin Hubble resolved the stars of the Andromeda nebula in 1923, with the help of then newly built 100-inch telescope at Mt.
Later discoveries by the American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, proved that the universe was, indeed, expanding so Einstein's `cosmological constant' was not required, after all.
Filled with anecdotal information, as well as full-page, captioned, black-and-white photography, the newest additions to this very highly recommended science biography series include Linus Pauling And The Chemical Bond; Willem Einthoven; Edwin Hubble And The Expanding Universe; Henry Ford And The Assembly Line; Enrico Fermi And The Nuclear Reactor; Otto Hahn And The Story Of Nuclear Fission; Charles Richter And The Story Of The Richter Scale; Philo T.
This was the telescope that Edwin Hubble used to map the cosmos.
And this is where Edwin Hubble made his discoveries of our place in the cosmos.
And astronomers recently reached agreement over just how fast the universe is growing, settling a controversy born back in 1929 when Edwin Hubble discovered that expansion.
The discovery that the universe was expanding by Edwin Hubble in the 1920s and subsequent observations suggest the universe began about 13.
In 1923, astronomer Edwin Hubble, using the newly built Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope, found dozens of variable stars in Andromeda, and determined their distance.
But when America's outstanding astronomer, Edwin Hubble, using new big telescopes in California, found that the galaxies and stars in the firmament were flying apart at tremendous speeds, the field of cosmology was shaken to its core.