Edwin Mcmasters Stanton

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Stanton, Edwin McMasters,

1814–69, American statesman, b. Steubenville, Ohio. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1836 and began to practice law in Cadiz. As his reputation grew, he moved first to Steubenville (1839), then to Pittsburgh (1847), and finally to Washington, D.C. (1856), becoming ever more prominent in his profession. In Dec., 1860, Stanton, a Democrat but a strong Unionist, succeeded Jeremiah S. BlackBlack, Jeremiah Sullivan,
1810–83, American cabinet officer, b. Somerset co., Pa. Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1830, Black became a successful lawyer. As U.S. Attorney General (1857–60) under President Buchanan he hired Edwin M.
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 as U.S. attorney general in President Buchanan's cabinet. Later, he became legal adviser to Abraham Lincoln's secretary of war, Simon CameronCameron, Simon
, 1799–1889, American politician and financier, b. Lancaster co., Pa. From humble beginnings he rose to be a newspaper publisher and with considerable success branched out into canal and road construction, railroad promotion, banking, and iron and steel
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. Appointed to take Cameron's place in Jan., 1862, he proved to be an extremely forceful and able secretary of war. Contracts ceased to be opportunities for graft; the railroads were placed under military control; and Union generals in the field were supplied with necessary men and matériel. One of the leading radicals in the Lincoln administration, Stanton worked closely with the radicals in Congress and used his influence with Lincoln to advance their program. Deeply grieved by Lincoln's death, he arranged for a swift trial of the alleged conspirators by a military court. Stanton remained in President Andrew Johnson's cabinet, but serious differences over Reconstruction policy led Johnson to demand (Aug., 1867) his resignation. When he refused to resign, Johnson suspended him, first appointing Ulysses S. GrantGrant, Ulysses Simpson,
1822–85, commander in chief of the Union army in the Civil War and 18th President (1869–77) of the United States, b. Point Pleasant, Ohio. He was originally named Hiram Ulysses Grant.
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 as secretary ad interim and then appointing Lorenzo Thomas as permanent secretary of war. Stanton, however, barricaded himself in his office, and the radicals in Congress, claiming that Johnson's actions violated the Tenure of Office Act, initiated impeachment proceedings against him. When Johnson was acquitted (May, 1868), Stanton resigned. He died shortly after President Grant appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court.


See biographies by F. Pratt (1953, repr. 1970), B. P. Thomas and H. M. Hyman (1962), and W. Stahr (2017); study by R. G. Mangrum (1980).

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Secretary Duncan visited Edwin M. Stanton Elementary School in Philadelphia last month (blog post) to emphasize the need to support students and teachers by investing in schools--as part of his vision for a rewrite of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
Arlington Mansion and the 200 acres of ground immediately surrounding it were officially designated as a military cemetery on June 15, 1864, by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. Today, more than 300,000 people are buried on the grounds with funerals, including interments and inurnments, averaging 28 a day.