Tax Rate

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Tax Rate

 

the amount of tax levied per unit of taxation, for example, per hectare of land or per ruble of income.

The tax rate expresses the norm of tax collection and is set by legislation. Tax rates may be fixed, proportional, progressive, and regressive. Fixed tax rates are established as an absolute sum per unit or object taxed, regardless of the amount of income, and are ordinarily used in taxing small plots of land. In the USSR, fixed rates are applied in collecting the agricultural tax on the private plots of kolkhoz members. Proportional tax rates are set at a definite percentage of income, regardless of the total amount. In the USSR, for example, proportional rates are used to levy an income tax on the income earned by consumer cooperative societies.

Progressive tax rates increase as the amount of taxable income increases. A distinction is made between simple and complex, or sliding, progressions. Under a simple progression, the rate increases with the amount of taxable income and is applied to the total amount of income or total value of the object being taxed. Under a complex progression, the rate increases only for the portion valued in excess of a predetermined preceding step. Progressive rates are used primarily in the levying of income taxes on the populace of the USSR and foreign countries.

Regressive tax rates diminish as the amount of income increases. Regressive taxation is clearly seen in the mechanism of indirect taxes on consumer goods that exists in every capitalist country. Under capitalism, special tax rates are frequently used to give certain advantages to large companies and corporations.

G. L. MAR’IAKHIN

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Deviations between effective rates of return and statutory rates are often related to
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The new lower overall effective rate may make it more beneficial to carry back an NOL.
The estimated effective rates and the average effective rates as a proportion of the statutory rates for each of the 32 states for the year 2000 are presented.
He said: "Many of the European countries, including France, have a much lower effective rate than that.
Landlord effective rates, which deduct operating expenses and real estate taxes, fell by an even larger percentage.
company has excess FTCs, the royalties are taxed at a relatively low effective rate in the U.S.
Indeed, the 6.6% effective rate of credit is the best case scenario; most firms will likely receive a much lower rate depending on the calculated base figure (see Table 1 [omitted] for a sample of effective rates).
Dr Setor Amediku, economist, chartered accountant and auditor, said under the new formula the Bank of Ghana had approved with commercial banks to use for deciding their effective rates, loan recipients should see the interest rates and loan payback schedules come down.
Bulgaria's prime minister has described taxes in his country, which has a flat tax applicable for all income levels and one of the lowest effective rates in the world, as "fantastic".
effective rates are lower due to an increase in concessions.
Effective rates, which factor in tenant concessions such as free rent and work allowances, have increased at an even greater rate."

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