Effector


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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
the basis and the effector can not belong to the same four bars linkage (Fig.
The system causes effectors and platforms to cooperate.
GeneArt[R] Precision TALs are supplied as Gateway[R] compatible entry clones encoding a DNA binding protein for a specific customer-submitted sequence fused to a range of customer selected effector domains.
We determined the lytic activity of peptide-specific and alloreactive effector CTLs using a standard 4-hr in vitro [.
Thirty centimetre-wide effector modules are arranged around the vehicle's, roof.
The inverse structural model is characterized by a null instantaneous degree of mobility which corresponds to impose two parameters for the effector.
The todays trend in the field of end effector exchange is the automated exchange systems (Danisova et al.
The DMM20 dot-preen/scribe-marking head is small enough to be used as an end effector on robots.
In other studies, Cryptosporidium parvum infection activated both CD4+ and CD8+ gamma/delta T cells, and Giardia species stimulated the release of several effector molecules, including defensins, cryptdins, and indolicidin.
Kawasaki has designed an end effector with the delicate touch of a human that can accomplish precise assembly tasks.
Presumably, isotype switching occurs in mucosal inductive sites, while IgA production by plasma cells occurs in mucosal effector sites, separating the IgA switching and IgA secretion by B cells into different immune compartments (8).
Promega Corporation announces the introduction of a novel bioluminescent assay for the quantification of Fc effector function of antibody-based molecules in the development and manufacture of biologic drugs.