Effector


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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Lambotte et al., "Preserved central memory and activated effector memory CD4+ T-cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus controllers: an ANRS EP36 study," Journal of Virology, vol.
The first term here gives the recruitment of effector cells at the rate [a.sub.1] which is directly proportional to the population of cancer cells (i.e., occurring due to the direct presence of cancer cells).
In Figure 13, three offsets are applied for three different end effector orientations.
The possible bases and effectors are given in the basis--effector matrix of the bi-mobile linkage which is a symmetrical one with the elements of the principal diagonal equal to zero [5], so that A[i, j] = A[j, i] and A[i,i]= 0 where i is the basis and j is the effector.
PE-labeled anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD1, anti-CD45RO, and anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies and FITClabeled monoclonal antibodies to GITR, OX40, CD40L, CD28, and CD95 (Becton Dickinson) were used for phenotypic evaluation of TREG and effector T cells following the same labeling protocol described above.
The design variables for this problem are the insertion point of the hand cart (set in advance for n carts) and where to push and tilt the object while inserting the hand cart (hereafter termed the end effector pushing point).
T-cells proliferate and differentiate in response to antigen, to generate lineage-committed effectors, the bulk of which die, marking termination of the immune response [14].
The basis and the effector must satisfy the following theorems:
Distinguishing among effectors, systems, and platforms allows greater flexibility and certainly better adaptability.
Cables are the only way to move an effector around such a robot.
This enables multiple rounds of cellular engineering to produce master cell banks of modified cells that can be expanded and differentiated into immune effector cells to supply vast amounts of allogeneic, homogeneous therapeutic products.
Century was founded by Versant in 2018 and later that year formed a strategic partnership with FCDI, a subsidiary of Fujifilm Corp., to develop iPSC-derived immune effector cells for cancer.