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Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.



(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.


References in periodicals archive ?
After a transplant, a mix of several T cell types, called effector cells, attack and kill new organs and expand into armies of millions, making it harder for the Tregs to suppress.
During primary responses, T cells differentiate into effector cells in lymphoid organs.
Imatinib affects cytokine production and the proliferation of T cells and inhibits the secretion of interferon-c by T effector cells.
13) Our data show a relatively large proportion of undifferentiated CD4 T-cells at the time of cART initiation, leading on to the expansion of central memory cells at 4 weeks, and subsequent expansion of effector and terminally differentiated effector cells at 12 weeks.
They carry enzymes, which produce an important immuno-suppressive and anti-inflammatory molecule, and they also appear to blunt the response of anti-tumour effector cells in the immune system.
Foxp3 regulatory T cells, Th17 effector cells, and cytokine environment in inflammatory bowel disease.
In addition, effector cells and APCs may be inhibited by direct contact with Treg cells and the interaction of cell surface proteins.
Effector cells and target cells (YAC-1) at the ratio of 10:1, 5:1 and 1:1 were added to wells of a round bottom 96 well cell culture plate with different concentration of peptides.
Four cardinal events during allergic inflammation can be classified as activation of memory/effector T cells and other effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, their organ-selective homing, prolonged survival and reactivation inside the allergic organs and effector functions (8).
The cells also have important roles in regulating cardiovascular function and act as effector cells in immunity, chronic inflammatory disorders, and atherosclerosis--which is the topic of this collection of reports on current research on mast cells.