Effector

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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
In this assay (Figure 1), Jurkat cell lines, stably expressing NFAT-luciferase reporter and human FcyRIIIa (both variants have been transduced; currently, only the V158 variant is commercially available), are used to replace primary NK cells isolated from PBMCs as effector cells, while WIL2-S cells expressing the CD-20 antigen specific to the test products are used as target cells.
In autoimmune diseases, it is thought that deficient Treg activity permits the T effector cells to attack the body's own beneficial cells and, in the case of T1D, insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, thereby reducing and eventually eliminating the body's ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin.
T cells are the main effector cells responsible for viral clearance and disease pathogenesis during acute HBV infection.
One prominent interaction between the infected tissue and the effector cells involves NKG2D and its ligands.
After a transplant, a mix of several T cell types, called effector cells, attack and kill new organs and expand into armies of millions, making it harder for the Tregs to suppress.
During primary responses, T cells differentiate into effector cells in lymphoid organs.
Imatinib affects cytokine production and the proliferation of T cells and inhibits the secretion of interferon-c by T effector cells.
Consequently, lymphoid effector cells induce systemic immune responses through natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) thus countering the local tumor-mediated immunosuppression.
13) Our data show a relatively large proportion of undifferentiated CD4 T-cells at the time of cART initiation, leading on to the expansion of central memory cells at 4 weeks, and subsequent expansion of effector and terminally differentiated effector cells at 12 weeks.
They carry enzymes, which produce an important immuno-suppressive and anti-inflammatory molecule, and they also appear to blunt the response of anti-tumour effector cells in the immune system.