Effector

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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
'The effectors of the bacteria have a range of very different functions.
Dexterous end effectors. Advanced grippers can handle a multitude of different-size objects, picking objects very gently.
Thus, the presence of effector cells within the tumor microenvironment may be required for antibodies to best achieve their antitumor activities.
2.a) one may put into evidence the basis and the effector, which must satisfy the following conditions:
MPs containing higher cAMP concentrations were sufficient to activate lower affinity cAMP effectors (green line).
The gripping robot is equipped with grippers for grasping the object, while the tilting robot possesses an end effector that tilts the object by pushing it.
T-cells proliferate and differentiate in response to antigen, to generate lineage-committed effectors, the bulk of which die, marking termination of the immune response [14].
These TAL effectors nucleases (TALENs) can be used to add or remove specific genes or correct gene mutations-techniques that fall under the broad category of genome editing.
Pacepacker reprogrammes, services, paints and fits the appropriate end effector to the system ready for its new occupation before installing this system with full servicing, spares and a one year warranty.
--to put into evidence the matrix of possible bases and effectors for the linkages adopted from Fig.
Second Principle: Distinguishing among Effectors, Systems, and Platforms
This approach must guide air and space power as it adjusts to future circumstances and resists over-reliance on versatile effectors, systems, and platforms.