Effector

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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
the effector must have a planar motion depending on two independent parameters;
MPs containing higher cAMP concentrations were sufficient to activate lower affinity cAMP effectors (green line).
iv) The target object contacts the end effector and hand cart.
The mobility instantaneously becomes zero due to the placing a connection between the basis and the extremity of the effectors and the inverse model has zero degree of mobility.
Curiously, however, there appeared to be little, if any, effect on cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors (Barnett et al.
Effector CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mechanisms in the control of respiratory virus infections, Immunol Rev 1997;159:105-17.
EOA Systems extends the company's range of robotic tooling applications by offering advanced water saver monitoring devices, tool changer applications, and enhanced end effector systems.
Clamp is an end effector (end-of-arm tool) mounted on a robot that was also designed and built by Grasp.
Effectors in Plant-Microbe Interactions unlocks the molecular basis of this important class of microbial molecules and describes their diverse and complex interactions with host plants.
Successful pathogens use effectors to suppress plant immunity and cause disease.
Its Amap-ADS (Advanced Modular Armour Protection--Active Defence System) is based on ladar sensors connected via optical fibre to an electronic control that provides data to the effectors located around the vehicle.
The extremity of the mechanism effectors may describe any curve in a suitable domain of the mechanisms.