Effector

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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
The simulations presented here indicate that MP-mediated increases in cAMP are insufficient to substantially activate downstream effectors within the cytosol of PMVECs.
The effector extremity of such mechanism may describe any curve in the evolution domain of the mechanism.
The A-10's system underwent complete updating to take into account the complexity of engagements, but its effectors remained very similar to those of the most modern aircraft.
Life's TAL Effector Proteins Allow Precise Genome Editing with Applications in Healthcare, Agriculture and Energy Research
In the frame of this project an automated end effector exchange system is one of the tasks.
To test this hypothesis we considered that the adverse immunotoxic effects of PRN exposure on cell-mediated immunity might be observed in one or more of three parameters: a) presentation of peptide antigen to CTLs by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), b) proliferation and differentiation of CTLs, and/or c) functional lytic response of activated CTL effectors.
Effector CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mechanisms in the control of respiratory virus infections, Immunol Rev 1997;159:105-17.
Effectors in Plant Microbe Interactions is divided into five sections that take stock of the current knowledge on effectors of plant-associated organisms.
The DE-STA-CO booth will feature a series of end effectors built with Accelerate[sup.
By employing fragment-free blast effectors, collateral damages are largely ruled out.
For the selection of the basis and the effector it is necessary to have in view the following theorems:
All of these effector proteins are secreted by a type-III secretion system encoded by the esc and sep genes (6).