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Related to Efik: Ibibio
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a people living in southeastern Nigeria between the delta of the Niger River and the Nigeria-Cameroon border; small groups also inhabit other areas of the country. They number more than 2 million persons (1970 estimate), including the closely related Anang, Oron, Andoni, Efik, Ekket, and Kwa tribes. The Ibibio language belongs to the Eastern Bantoid language group. The Ibibio worship natural forces and practice ancestor worship. Some profess Christianity. Their primary occupations are farming (yam, cassava, and sweet potato), gathering the fruit of the oil palm, and, in the coastal areas, fishing. Seasonal migratory work is available.


Ismagilova, R. N. Narody Nigerii. Moscow, 1963.



the language of the Ibibio people who inhabit south-eastern Nigeria. It belongs to the Cross River subgroup of the Congo-Kordofanian language family (according to J. Greenberg) or the Eastern Bantoid language group (according to other classifications). There are more than 2 million speakers of Ibibio (1970, estimate). The main dialects include Ibibio, Efik, and Okoiyang.

The language includes bifocal obstruents (for example, the combination [Kp]) and phonologic tones. Relationships conveyed by cases and prepositions in other languages are expressed in Ibibio by word order and by two prepositions, as well as lexically, by verbs. For example, “I will go without you” in the Efik dialect is Nyeka nyunke fi (literally, “I will go—I do not want you”). Words are formed primarily by prefixation. The verb is prefixed in order to convey the person and number of the subject. Aspectual-temporal and modal meanings are also expressed by prefixes and special personal pronouns. A literary language based on the Efik dialect has existed since the 19th century.


Goldie, H. Principles of Efik Grammar. Edinburgh, 1968.
Adams, R. English-Efik and Efik-English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Liver-pool, 1943.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The BiH Presidency Member A efik DA3/4aferovic recalled that the Charter was written at the time of Bosnia's great political and economic rise, but that BiH had existed before Kulin Ban and this Charter.
He describes with great empathy the hardships and difficulties faced by early 'humanitarian' travellers in the nineteenth century, such as the missionaries Hope Waddell and Mary Slessor, but at the same time is extremely critical of the missions' desire to create 'docile and amenable' people in Calabar, ready to comply with colonial authority, and of the failure of missionary education to provide what the Efik wanted in terms of training in technological and commercial know-how.
Arit Asuquo Ibok's family sent her to the fattening room because she is still unmarried at 35; Patrons at Mairy Nai, a popular beauty salon, are advised against fattening rooms; Atim Effiong, an Efik woman from Creek Town daubed in the chalk paints used in the fattening process; Stalls at Watt Market sell fattening accoutrements; Fattening product Wate-on from local pharmacists; Pictures: JUSTIN SUTCLIFFE
BiH Presidency Member A efik DA3/4aferovic congratulated Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Diaspora on the occasion of the Eid al-Adha.
Ambassador Sabolic said he condemned and strongly protested all statements from BiH, and in particular the statement by BiH Presidency Member A efik DA3/4aferovic, in which the controversial and 'nonexistent' statement of the President of the Republic of Croatia was brought into the context of the Joint Criminal Enterprise ruling.
Member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina A efik DA3/4aferovic received today the Director of the Office of the Muslim World League (Rabita) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Abdullah Qari.
Member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, A efik DA3/4aferovic, today received a delegation from the Turkish city of Konya, headed by Mayor Ugur Ibrahim Altay.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's Presidency Member A efik DA3/4aferovic attended yesterday the opening of the Memorial in A1/2epa and the marking of the 24th anniversary of the fall of the United Nations Safe Area of A1/2epa.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's Presidency Member A efik DA3/4aferovic received EUFOR commander General Reinhard Trischak in an inaugural visit.
Member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina A efik DA3/4aferovic said that the case of the announced construction of a nuclear waste disposal site in Trgovska Gora in Croatia, right on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina shows that the member of the BiH Presidency, Milorad Dodik, made a big mistake and has caused harm for everyone in BiH when he made a decision at the last session of the Presidency to work for the best interest of Croatia and against the interests of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The burial was attended by members of the families of the killed victims, friends, neighbors, and among others the Member of the Presidency of BiH A efik DA3/4aferovic and RS Vice-President Ramiz Salkic.
This conclusion was adopted without consensus at the 4th regular session of the Presidency of BiH, on July 16, with two votes in favor, A1/2eljko KomA!ic and A efik DA1/2aferovic, with one vote against, by the incumbent chairman of the Presidency, Milorad Dodik, who then activated the institute of the protection of vital interests RS.