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a people living in southeastern Nigeria between the delta of the Niger River and the Nigeria-Cameroon border; small groups also inhabit other areas of the country. They number more than 2 million persons (1970 estimate), including the closely related Anang, Oron, Andoni, Efik, Ekket, and Kwa tribes. The Ibibio language belongs to the Eastern Bantoid language group. The Ibibio worship natural forces and practice ancestor worship. Some profess Christianity. Their primary occupations are farming (yam, cassava, and sweet potato), gathering the fruit of the oil palm, and, in the coastal areas, fishing. Seasonal migratory work is available.


Ismagilova, R. N. Narody Nigerii. Moscow, 1963.



the language of the Ibibio people who inhabit south-eastern Nigeria. It belongs to the Cross River subgroup of the Congo-Kordofanian language family (according to J. Greenberg) or the Eastern Bantoid language group (according to other classifications). There are more than 2 million speakers of Ibibio (1970, estimate). The main dialects include Ibibio, Efik, and Okoiyang.

The language includes bifocal obstruents (for example, the combination [Kp]) and phonologic tones. Relationships conveyed by cases and prepositions in other languages are expressed in Ibibio by word order and by two prepositions, as well as lexically, by verbs. For example, “I will go without you” in the Efik dialect is Nyeka nyunke fi (literally, “I will go—I do not want you”). Words are formed primarily by prefixation. The verb is prefixed in order to convey the person and number of the subject. Aspectual-temporal and modal meanings are also expressed by prefixes and special personal pronouns. A literary language based on the Efik dialect has existed since the 19th century.


Goldie, H. Principles of Efik Grammar. Edinburgh, 1968.
Adams, R. English-Efik and Efik-English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Liver-pool, 1943.


References in periodicals archive ?
Pronounced traits of Animism can be found among the Ibibios, the Efiks, the Ogoja tribes, and Sierra Leone tribes in West Africa, among some tribes around the great equatorial lakes of Eastern Africa and among the Kung bushmen of Southern Africa .
Traditionally, Efik girls, on reaching the age of fourteen or fifteen, would enter seclusion in the 'fattening room' (ufok nkuho) to prepare for womanhood (Akak 1982; Kingsley 1975).
It is also known as utazi in Igbo, utasi in Efik and Ibibio, and arokeke in Yoruba languages of Nigeria (14).
In Calabar, the colonial administration while ensuring the dominant status to the Efik Community also offered many opportunities to the other two groups - Efut and Qua to secure leading administrative, political and judicial positions.
In Igbo land it is called "Ukazi" or "Ukasi" while Efik call it afang.
Asisti en san Miguel de Padron, en La Habana, a un plante o ceremonia de iniciacion abakua en la que se escuchaba en el interior del templo o famba, el sonido de este tambor de friccion, sonido penetrante y misterioso con un profundo significado espiritual entre los abakua y entre los efik de Calabar y que hoy en Malabo (Bioko) llaman "crai Egbo" pues es utilizado para llorar a los miembros de la sociedad del Nankue en su rito funerario.
For example, Yoruba is spoken in six states, Igbo in four states, Annang, Efik and Ibibio in two states while Hausa is spoken across all the states in the North.
Located also within the region are the Efik, Ibibio, Ijaw, and a number of smaller ethnic communities.
7 516 Hausa Ibo Yoruba Adamawa- Fulfulde Kanuri Edo Idoma Efik Ingles Republica 4.
As Turner concentrated on the study of Ewe, Efik, Ga, Twi, and Yoruba, he began to understand some of the unusual linguistic features he had observed in Gullah.
There is Maduka, Pa Akadike's son and Chioma's grandfather who is married to Adiaha, a woman of Efik origin in Nigeria's South-South.
This phenomenon has been documented in many African languages, including Efik (Winston 1960), Akan (Schachter 1961), Twi (Schachter and Fromkin 1968), Hausa (Silverstein 1976, Inkelas and Leben 1991), Etsako (Elimelech 1978), Supyire (Carlson 1994), and Igbo (Hombert 1974, Laniran and Gerfen 1997).