Egas Moniz, Antônio Caetano de Arbreau Freire

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Egas Moniz, Antônio Caetano de Arbreau Freire


Born Nov. 29, 1874, in Avanca; died Dec. 13, 1955, in Lisbon. Portuguese neuropathologist and neurosurgeon.

Egas Moniz studied at the universities of Coimbra and Bordeaux. From 1902 he was a professor at the University of Coimbra and from 1911 to 1944 he held the chair of neurology at the University of Lisbon. Egas Moniz’ principal work was concerned with perfecting a method of angiography for detecting brain tumors. He was the first to use surgical intervention in treating certain mental diseases, elaborating in 1936 a method of prefrontal lobotomy (incision of the white matter of the forebrain); for this work he (with W. Hess) received the Nobel Prize in 1949.

Egas Moniz invented a number of devices and instruments for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of brain diseases, and also wrote textbooks on neurology, arteriography, and other related subjects.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.