defence mechanism

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defence mechanism

(PSYCHOANALYSIS) the method by which the EGO transforms the energies of the ID to make them acceptable to reality. Defence mechanisms reduce biological tension and mental anxiety The main defence mechanisms are:
  1. denial, where the instinctual urge is inhibited;
  2. repression, where it is made completely unconscious;
  3. projection, where the urge is inhibited in the self but attributed to another person;
  4. reaction formation, where the energies of the ID are redirected in the opposite direction;
  5. intellectualization, where unacceptable emotions are transformed by explanations making excuses for the undesirable behaviour;
  6. sublimation, where the energy of the ID is directed from the primary, but unacceptable, object to one that is socially acceptable. See also FREUD, LACAN.
References in periodicals archive ?
Multidimensional perfectionism and ego defenses. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 19, 41-54.
Freud referred to psychological defensiveness generally as ego defense mechanisms.
To examine the multivariate relationship between the racial identity statuses of White counselor trainees and the ego defense mechanisms used to manage their anxiety during racially provocative counseling and supervision situations, we used a canonical correlation procedure.
The unconscious mind chimes in with ego defense mechanisms, which allow the ego to deal with the anxiety and respond to the stress.
In each issue where ego defenses are clearly involved, the patient is also demonstrating efforts to compensate for cognitive disturbance with only partial success.
Freud (1933) on the other hand, has characterized this situation as the one in which, the normal individual's, unconscious wishes lead to motor behavior which are inhibited by ego defenses. He points out, however, that when there is pathological enfeeblement of ego defenses or pathological enforcement of unconscious excitation, "forbidden" unconscious impulses and potential motor expression may coexist.
Not religious leaders, but psychologists grapple with what it means to transcend individualistic aspects of the self such as excessive self-interest and ego defenses, which have dominated American society--or at least marketing--since the 1970s.
(8) Thomas Strentz, "Law Enforcement Policy and Ego Defenses
The men who go to the wilderness to participate in the Men's Rites of Passage face five days of silence and rituals that strip away ego defenses and make them aware of their own grief, loss and suffering.
Ego defenses were measured with the Hebrew version of the Ego Defenses Scale, one of the Child Suicidal Potential Scales.
2) recommended preceding hypnotherapeutic techniques with general ego-strengthening suggestions to strengthen his/her confidence and general ego defenses. Stanton (1979) preferred the name ego-enhancement, and equated it with increasing one's sense of internal control.
Control is achieved through the resolution of object conflict, which is done through the use of ego defenses (Vaillant, 1971).